Moore M, Chen J, Mallow P, Rizzo J. The Direct Health-Care Burden of Valvular Heart Disease: Evidence from US national survey data. Clinicoecon Outcomes Res. 2016; 8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5076539/pdf/ceor-8-613.pdf
Mitral valve disease (symptomatic and asymptomatic) costs the U.S. at least $13.2 billion in direct healthcare expenditures each year.
Aortic valve disease (AVD) (symptomatic and asymptomatic) costs the U.S. $10.2 billion in direct costs each year.