Healthcare-Associated Infections  /  Prevalence & Incidence

Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are acquired while receiving medical or surgical care for other conditions in hospitals, physician offices, long-term care facilities, and other healthcare settings. They are largely preventable, yet often costly and deadly, and rapidly becoming a national crisis as they increasingly develop resistance to drugs.

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    • ~70% of hospital HAIs resistant to ≥ antimicrobial
      Approximately 70% of hospital-acquired HAIs are resistant to at least one antimicrobial drug.  
    • Dramatic increase of antibiotic resistance between 1981 and 2001
      Increase in antibiotic resistance over 20 year period  
    • Most common principal diagnoses for hospitalized patients with HAIs
      The most common principal diagnoses for hospitalized patients with HAIs are: Septicemia 11.8% Adult respiratory failure 5.9% Complications from surgical or medical care 4.1%  
    • 10 most common pathogens leading to HAIs
      The 10 most common pathogens leading to HAIs: Coagulase-negative staphylococci 15% Staphylococcus aureus 15% Enterococcus species 12% Candida species 11% Escherichia coli 10% Pseudomonas aeruginosa 8% Klebsiella pneumoniae 6% Enterobacter species 5% Acinetobacter baumannii 3% Klebsiella oxytoca 2%  
    • 75% of c. diff infections start in places like nursing homes and physician offices
      75% of clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infections, a common HAI, start in places like nursing homes and physician offices.  
    • ~1 in 20 hospitalized patients will get an HAI
      Around 1 in 20 hospitalized patients will contract a healthcare-associated infection, the most common complication of hospital care.  
    • ~1.7 million Americans develop hospital-acquired HAIs annually
      Approximately 1.7 million Americans develop hospital-acquired HAIs each year.  
    • ~3/4 of all HAIs occur outside of ICU
      Nearly 3/4 of all hospital-acquired HAIs occur outside of the intensive care unit (ICU).  
    • Primary sources of HAIs
      Around 2/3 of all HAIs are central-line associated bloodstream infections, catheter-associated urinary tract infections, and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Surgical site infections and Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) are also common HAIs.  
    • C. difficile-related deaths on the rise
      Between 1999 and 2004, C. difficile-related deaths in the U.S. increased 35% each year.  
    • Significant increase of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus penumoniae
      High-level penicillin-resistant Steptococcus pneumoniae increased 1,000-fold over 17 years.  
    • Antibiotic resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae on the rise
      Resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae to antibiotics has dramatically increased- from 5.3% to 11.6% for third generation cephalosporins (between 1999 and 2010), and from <0.1% to 4.5% for carbapenams (between 2002…  
    • Majority of physicians treated patient with at least 1 drug-resistant infection
      63% of surveyed infectious disease physicians treated a patient with at least one drug-resistant infection in 2011. 56% believed those infections to be on the rise.  
    • Hospital-acquired pneumonia leading cause of HAI
      Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is the 2nd most frequent cause of hospital-acquired infection, numbering around 300,000 cases each year.