Stroke

Stroke is the 5th leading cause of death in the U.S. and kills more than 129,000 people each year. Someone in the U.S. has a stroke about once every 40 seconds. People do survive stroke--around 795,000 strokes occur each year and there are an estimated 7 million stroke survivors in the U.S.--but they are often left with significant disabilities.

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    • Annual strokes: new and recurrent
      Each year, about 795,000 people experience a new (~610,000 cases) or recurrent (~185,000 cases) stroke.  
    • Stroke deaths and disability
      Stroke accounts for 1 of every 20 deaths in the US and is a leading cause of serious long-term disability.  
    • Number of Americans living with cardiovasuclar disease
      About 92.1 million American adults are living with some form of cardiovascular disease or the after-effects of stroke.  
    • Risk of stroke in people with AFib
      The risk of having a stroke increases 5-fold in individuals with AFib. Individuals with AFib also have more severe and recurrent strokes than those without the disease.  
    • AFib-related stroke and disability
      Stroke is very disabling and individuals recovering from a stroke who also have AFib have a higher risk of remaining disable or handicapped compared to stroke patients without AFib.  
    • Hospitalization costs for patients with nonrecurrent ischemic stroke
      The cost of hospitalization for patients with nonrecurrent ischemic stroke is $4,991 more in patients with atrial fibrillation, than in patients without the disease.        
    • Hospital costs for ischemic stroke
      Hospital costs for nonrecurrent ischemic stroke are 20% higher in patients with atrial fibrillation, than in patients without the disease.  
    • By 2030, the medical costs for cardiovascular disease will triple to $818 billion from 2010.  
    • In 2009, 1 million Americans were hospitalized for stroke.  
    • Stroke is responsible for 1 in every 19 deaths in the U.S.  
    • Every 4 minutes someone in the U.S. dies from a stroke.  
    • Annual strokes from AFib
      Atrial fibrillation accounts for between 75,000 and 100,000 strokes per year.  
    • By 2030, it is projected that an additional 4 million people will have had a stroke–a 25% increase in prevalence from 2010.  
    • The mean lifetime cost of ischemic stroke in the U.S. is estimated at $140,048–this includes inpatient care, rehabilitation, and follow-up care.  
    • The mean cost per person with stroke in the U.S. in 2007 was estimated at $7,657.  
    • The estimated direct medical cost of stroke in 2008 was $18.8 billion–this includes hospital outpatient stays, emergency department visits, prescribed medications, and home health care.  
    • Within 1 year of a transient ischemic attack, around 12% of patients will die.  
    • Atrial fibrillation increases stroke risk
      Atrial fibrillation increases the risk of stroke 5- fold.  
    • Between 1998 and 2008, the stroke death rate fell 34.8%. The actual number of stroke deaths declined 19.4%.  
    • In 2009, stroke as a first-listed diagnosis was the cause of 3.3 million physician office visits, 768,000 emergency department visits and 127,000 outpatient department visits.  
    • When considered separately from other forms of cardiovascular disease, stroke ranks as the 4th leading cause of death in the U.S.  
    • Stroke accounts for 1 in every 18 deaths in the U.S.  
    • Every 4 minutes, someone in the U.S. dies from a stroke.  
    • AFib attributed stroke rate by age
      The percentage of strokes attributable to atrial fibrillation increases from 1.5% at ages 50 to 59, to 23.5% at ages 80 to 89.  
    • Average age at death from stroke, 2002
      In 2002, the mean age at death from stroke was 79.6 years.  
    • An estimated 7 million Americans age 20 and older have had a stroke.  
    • Every 40 seconds, someone in the U.S. has a stroke.  
    • Each year, around 795,000 Americans experience a new or recurrent stroke–around 610,000 are first attacks and 185,000 are recurrent.  
    • Savings associated with t-PA treatment for ischemic stroke patients
      A $600 net savings is associated with each ischemic stroke patient treated with t-PA. In 2005, only 2% of all ischemic stroke patients received t-PA. If that percentage was increased…  
    • Stroke prevention through optimal anticoagulation
      If half of atrial fibrillation patients who currently receive warfarin in a routine care setting had their anti-coagulation optimized, around 9,000 strokes and more than 29,000 bleeds would be prevented.  
    • Cost-savings associated with optimal anticoagulation in AFib patients
      If half of all atrial fibrillation patients receiving suboptimal or no anticoagulation instead received optimal anticoagulation, 28,000 strokes could be prevented each year at a savings of around $2.5 billion in direct…  
    • Effectiveness of treating ischemic strokert-PA within 3 hours of symptom onset
      A study of the  victims with effectiveness of treating ischemic strokert-PA within 3 hours of symptom onset showed a decrease in rehabilitation costs of $1.4 million and nursing home costs of…  
    • Per-patient annual cost of treating stroke in atrial fibrillation patients
      The per-patient annual cost of treating stroke in atrial fibrillation patients was found to be $1,485 in a wellcontrolled anti-coagulation clinic, $3,710 for those receiving warfarin in routine medical care,…  
    • Cost of warfarin therapy for AFib patients
      In patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) and one additional stroke risk factor, warfarin therapy cost $8,000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) saved.  
    • Anti-platelet therapy stroke risk reduction
      Anti-platelet therapy after a stroke or TIA reduces the risk of nonfatal ischemic strokes by 28% and fatal strokes by 16%.  
    • Aspirin as stroke prevention
      Aspirin reduces stroke rate by 20% in patients with myocardial infarction.  
    • Pioglitazone associated with relative risk reduction in recurrent stroke
      The PROactive trial to manage glucose in diabetics with a history of cardiovascular disease, stroke, or other vascular risk factors found that treatment with pioglitazone was associated with a 47% relative…  
    • Antihypertensive drugs used to reduce stroke recurrence
      Treatment of high blood pressure with antihypertensive drugs is associated with a significant reduction in risk of recurrent stroke.  
    • Lowering blood pressure associated with reduction in stroke risk
      Lowering of blood pressure is associated with a 30% to 40% reduction in stroke risk.  
    • Effectiveness of treating ischemic stroke victims with rt-PA within 3 hours of symptom onset
      A study of the effectiveness of treating ischemic stroke victims with rt-PA within 3 hours of symptom onset found an estimated impact on long-term health outcomes of 564 quality-adjusted life-years saved…  
    • Catheter ablation reduces risk of stroke and death among AFib patients
      Atrial fibrillation patients who underwent catheter ablation had a reduced risk of stroke and death—2.2% of those who had ablation experienced stroke versus 4.7% on medications alone, and 6% died from…  
    • Stroke risk reduction from thrombin inhibitor in AFib patients
      A recently approved direct thrombin inhibitor was found to reduce the risk of stroke/peripheral embolic events in atrial fibrillation patients by 34%, and the risk of hemorrhagic stroke by 74%—compared…  
    • Adjusted-dose warfarin reduced stroke risk in AFib patients
      Meta-analysis of randomized trials found that adjusted-dose warfarin reduced stroke risk in atrial fibrillation patients by 60%. Antiplatelet agents reduced risk by 20%.  
    • Aspirin use in AFib patients
      Meta-analysis of a number of randomized controlled trials found that aspirin use in atrial fibrillation patients reduced stroke risk by an average 22%.  
    • Stroke rates among Afib patients
      In one year, 58,283 of the 1.265 million Medicare beneficiaries with atrial fibrillation that did not receive prophylaxis suffered a stroke. For those who did receive anti-coagulants, 38,468 suffered strokes.  
    • The projected total cost of ischemic stroke from 2005 to 2050 (in 2005 dollars) is around $2.2 trillion.  
    • Total direct and indirect costs of stroke in the U.S. are projected to reach $140 billion by 2030. This represents a 238% change in direct costs compared to 2010, and…  
    • If current trends in mortality continue, the United States will see a doubling in deaths from ischemic strokebetween 2003 and 2033.  
    • By 2030, the prevalence of stroke is projected to increase approximately 25%. This means there will bean additional 4 million Americans with stroke (compared to 2010).  
    • Breakdown of Direct Costs of Stroke (Short Term and Long Term) by Type of Expense  
    • Annual AFib-related stroke Medicare costs
      Stroke in Medicare patients with atrial fibrillation who were not treated with anticoagulants, cost Medicare $4.8 billion each year in direct costs. Those who had strokes despite prophylactic treatment cost an additional…  
    • In 2006, $3.9 billion was paid to Medicare beneficiaries discharged from short-stay hospitals for stroke.  
    • The mean hospitalization costs for patients admitted for stroke range from $8,000 to $23,000 (in 2008 dollars).  
    • The estimated cost of stroke for the first 30 days after the event is $20,346 for severe ischemic strokes and $13,019 for mild ones.  
    • The mean lifetime cost of ischemic stroke is an estimated $140,048.  
    • Of the $73.7 billion cost of stroke in 2010—$21 billion was for hospital costs, $17.1 billion for nursing home costs, $3.8 billion for physicians and other professionals, $1.3 billion for…  
    • The annual direct and indirect costs of stroke are between $40.9 billion and $73.7 billion.  
    • Annual cost of AFib-related stroke in Medicare patients
      The annual cost of stroke in Medicare patients with atrial fibrillation is estimated at $8 billion.  
    • Cost of AFib-related stroke in Medicare patients
      The incremental treatment costs associated with stroke in the year following diagnosis of atrial fibrillation are an estimated $7,907 per Medicare patient.  
    • In one year alone (1990), stroke led to more than 100,000 nursing home admissions with a mean length of stay of 432 days.  
    • Stroke was listed as the first-diagnoses for 3,764,000 ambulatory care visits in 2007.  
    • The mean length of stay for patients hospitalized for stroke ranges from 4.6 to 12.4 days.  
    • In 2004, stroke hospitalizations totaled 726,000.  
    • After a stroke, 15% to 30% of survivors are permanently disabled and 20% require institutional care at 3 months after the stroke.  
    • Of those that survive a stroke, only 10% recover completely.  
    • Of those who survived a stroke, 30% received outpatient rehabilitation.  
    • Ischemic stroke survivors who were 65 years and older had the following disabilities 6 months after their stroke:• 50% had some one-sided paralysis• 30% needed help walking• 26% needed help…  
    • Stroke is a leading cause of serious long-term disability in the United States.  
    • Every 4 minutes, on average, someone dies of a stroke.  
    • Within 30 days of ischemic stroke, 8.1% of people age 65 and older were dead.  
    • The mean age at death from stroke was 79.6 in 2002.  
    • Stroke is a contributory cause of death for around 230,000 people each year.  
    • One in every 18 deaths in the United States is caused by stroke.  
    • Stroke is the third most common cause of death in the United States, when considered separately from other cerebrovascular diseases.  
    • AFib strokes occurring in patients 75+
      Close to half of all atrial fibrillation associated strokes occur in patients age 75 and older.  
    • The risk of stroke attributable to atrial fibrillation by age
      The risk of stroke attributable to atrial fibrillation increases from 1.5% for those ages 50 to 59 to 23.5% for those ages 80 to 89.  
    • Atrial fibrillation stroke risk
      Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of severe and recurrent ischemic stroke. Patients not treated with anticoagulants have a 2.1-fold increase in risk of recurrent stroke and 2.4-fold increase in…  
    • Ischemic strokes caused by AFib
      Atrial fibrillation is responsible for at least 15% to 20% of all ischemic strokes.  
    • Risk of ischemic stroke in AFib patients
      The risk of ischemic stroke in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients is 2 to 7 times (200% to 700%) greater than in those without the disease.  
    • Most common causes of death after AFib diagnosis
      Within the first 4 months of diagnosis of atrial fibrillation, the most common cause of cardiovascular deaths are coronary artery disease (22%), heart failure (14%), and ischemic stroke (10%). After…  
    • Prevalence of stroke by age and sex (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: 2005-2008)  
    • Thirty-day mortality rates after stroke increase with age—from 9% in Medicare beneficiaries ages 65 to 74, to 13.1% in beneficiaries ages 74 to 84, to 23% in beneficiaries 85 and…  
    • Stroke prevalence increases with age—the rate at ages 85 to 94 is 3.5 times higher than at ages 65 to 74.  
    • Around 87% of all strokes are ischemic.  
    • Every 40 seconds, on average, someone in the U.S. has a stroke.  
    • Every year, around 795,000 Americans have a stroke—around 610,000 are first time strokes and 185,000 are recurrent attacks.  
    • An estimated 7,000,000 Americans age 20 and older have had a stroke.  
    • Stroke was the third leasing cause of death for those over 65 in 2006 with 297 per 100,000 deaths.  
    • The estimated direct and indirect cost of stroke for 2010 is $73.7 billion.  
    • On average, every 4 minutes someone in the US dies of a stroke.  
    • Stroke accounted for about 1 of every 18 deaths in the US in 2006.  
    • On average, every 40 seconds someone in the US has a stroke.  
    • Among American adults age 20 and older, the estimated prevalence of stroke in 2006 was 6.4 million.  
    • There are 23 medicines in development for stroke, the third leading cause of death after heart disease and cancer.  
    • 2005 Stroke Age-Adjusted Death Rates by State  
    • In 2006, $3.9 billion ($7449 per person) was paid to Medicare beneficiaries discharged from short-stay hospitals for stroke.  
    • In 2009, the estimated direct and indirect cost of stroke is $68.9 billion.  
    • 21% of American men and 24% of women age 40 years of age or older died 1 year after their first stroke in 2005.  
    • On average, one American has a stroke every 40 seconds.  
    • Preliminary U.S. data show that stroke accounted for 1 of every 18 deaths in 2006.  
    • About 795,000 Americans experience a new or recurrent stroke each year–about 610,000 are first attacks and 185,000 are recurrent.  
    • In adults >55 years of age, the lifetime risk for stroke is greater than 1 in 6.  
    • Each year, approximately 60,000 more women than men have a stroke.  
    • Each year, about 780,000 people experience a new or recurrent stroke. About 600,000 of these are first attacks,and 180,000 are recurrent attacks.  
    • On average, every 40 seconds, someone in the United States has a stroke.  
    • Prevalence of stroke by age and sex  
    • In 2005, an estimated 103,000 inpatient endarterectomy procedures were performed in the U.S. Carotid endarterectomy is the most frequently performed surgical procedure to prevent stroke.  
    • The mean lifetime cost of ischemic stroke in the U.S. is an estimated $140,048. This cost includes inpatient care, rehabilitation, and follow-up care.  
    • In 2001, $3.7 billion was paid to Medicare beneficiaries that were discharged from short-stay hospitals for stroke ($6,037 per discharge).  
    • From 1979 to 2005, the number of inpatient discharges from short-stay hospitals with stroke as the first listed diagnosis increased 20%, to 895,000.  
    • 50-70% of stroke survivors regain functional independence. However, 15-30% are permanently disabled and 20% require institutional care at 3 months after onset.  
    • Of those who have a first stroke, within 5 years: 13% of men and 22% of women ages 40-69 have a recurrent stroke; and 23% of men and 28% of…  
    • The median survival time after a first stroke are: at 60-69 years of age–6.8 years for men and 7.4 years for women; at 70-79 years of age–5.4 years for men…  
    • Within 1 year of a first stroke, 21% of men and 24% of women 40 years of age and older, were dead.  
    • Within 5 years of a first stroke, 47% of men and 51% of women 40 years and older, were dead.  
    • Among those ages 45-64, 8-12% of ischemic strokes, and 37-38% of hemorrhagic strokes, result in death within 30 days.  
    • Those who have a transient ischemic attack have a 10-year stroke risk of 18.8% and a combined 10-year stroke, myocardial infarction, or vascular death risk of 42.8%.  
    • The prevalence of transient ischemic attack (a mini-stroke that lasts less than 24 hours) in men is estimated at 2.4% for those ages 65-69, and 3.6% for those ages 75-79.…  
    • An estimated 5,600,000 American adults have had a stroke.  
    • In 2004, stroke accounted for around 1 in 16 deaths in the U.S.  
    • When considered separately from cardiovascular disease, stroke is the 3rd leading cause of death in the U.S.  
    • Stroke is the leading cause of serious, long-term disability in the U.S.  
    • In adults over 55 years, the lifetime risk of stroke is greater than 1 in 6.  
    • In 2004, stroke accounted for approximately 1 out of every 16 deaths in the U.S. Approximately 54% of stroke deaths in 2004 occurred out of the hospital.  
    • The length of time to recover from a stroke depends on its severity. From 50% to 70% of stroke survivors regain functional independence, but 15% to 30% are permanently disabled,…  
    • Approximately 780,000 Americans each year experience a new or recurrent stroke. About 600,000 of these are first attacks, and 180,000 are recurrent attacks,  
    • Preliminary data from 2005 indicate that stroke accounted for about 1 of every 17 deaths in the U.S. On average, every 40 seconds someone in the U.S. has a stroke.…  
    • Following the current path, stroke cases will increase by 28.9% between 2003 and 2023 (estimates do not include strokes among the institutionalized population). If an alternative path is taken, there…  
    • Using medical imaging to diagnose and treat stroke leads to better outcomes and shorter hospital stays, which yields a net economic benefit of about $8 billion over 10 years.  
    • According to the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, 13 medicines are currently in development for stroke.  
    • Every additional dollar spent on antiplatelet therapy versus aspirin for the prevention of stroke in high-risk patients, has produced health gains valued between $2 and $6.  
    • Ischemic stroke patients treated with t-PA (a drug used to treat blood clots) within 3 hours of onset are 33% more likely to be free of disability 3 months after…  
    • A study of ischemic stroke survivors who were at least 65-years-old found that at 6 months post-stroke 50% had some one-sided paralysis, 30% were unable to walk without some assistance,…  
    • Only 2.7% of 65-year-olds who have experienced a stroke are free of comorbidities and physical limitations–66.4% have 3 or more.  
    • 20% of stroke survivors require institutional care within 3 months after onset and 15% to 30% are permanently disabled.  
    • Without antihypertensive drug therapy, there would have been about 572,000 more hospital discharges for stroke in 2002 and 261,000 more discharges for myocardial infarction.  
    • Increased use of a blood-thinning drug prevents 40,000 strokes every year in the U.S.  
    • Increased use of a blood-thinning drug saves $600 million annually, because of the strokes it prevents.  
    • New approaches are under development to reduce ischemic stroke damage and other damage occuring because of stroke.  
    • A recent data analysis of more than 2,700 stroke patients from the U.S. and Europe confirmed tPA’s effectiveness, which could save the U.S. nearly $50 million a year.  
    • In 1995, an NIH-funded clinical trial established the first FDA-approved treatment for acute ischemic stroke treatment.The drug tPA, if given within 3 hours of stroke symptoms, reduces the risk of…  
    • 5.5 million Americans have survived a stroke, but live with its impact every day.  
    • The age-adjusted stroke mortality rate has decreased 70% since 1950, and 64% since 1972.  
    • Death rates from stroke have decreased from 180.7 per 100,000 persons in 1950, to 56.2 per 100,000 persons in 2002.  
    • The projected economic value of eliminating deaths from stroke is $7.6 trillion.  
    • Greater use of clot-busting drug t-PA in ischemic stroke patients could save the health care system over $100 million a year.  
    • Treating acute stroke with drugs that minimize cell death could result in a median decrease in disability of 30%. Treatment with stem cell transplants could result in a median decrease…  
    • Development of a neuroprotective drug could potentially reduce disability from stroke by 50%.  
    • Effectiveness of pacemaker/defibrillators to control AFib
      Widespread use of pacemaker/defibrillators to control atrial fibrillation could result in a 50% decrease in stroke.  
    • Every additional dollar spent on the overall treatment of stroke has produced health gains valued at $1.55.  
    • Spending $1,000 per year on anticoagulants can save $100,000 in hospital costs for care of a person disabled by a stroke.  
    • Because of reduced mortality rates, the number of stroke survivors who are non-institutionalized increased from 2.0 to 2.4 million between 1980 and 1991.  
    • Between 1980 and 2000, stroke mortality rates fell from 96.2 to 60.8 per 100,000 persons.  
    • The conditions and disabilities associated with stroke cost the United States between $30 billion and $40 billion a year.