Infectious Diseases  /  Human Burden

Vaccine preventable illnesses and diseases continue to cause significant sickness, hospitalization, pain, disability, and death in the United States.  Pneumonia causes somewhere between 300,000 and 600,000 hospitalizations in older adults each year, and more than 50% of flu-related hospitalizations are in people age 65 and older.  Around 50% of the more than 1 million cases of shingles each year are in people age 60 and older.

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    • Shingles causes an average of 129 hours lost work per episode
      Patients with shingles (including those progressing to postherpetic neuralgia) lose an average of over 129 hours of work per episode, including losses of 12 or more hours of work time  
    • Vaccine-eligible account for majority of shingles-related hospitalizations
      The shingles vaccine-eligible population (i.e., persons aged 60 years or older) accounted for 74% of the total annual shingles-related hospital charges in 2004.  
    • Shingles pain occurs in ~50% of cases in older adults
      Complications of shingles—including postherpetic neuralgia (PHN)—occur in almost 50 percent of older persons with the disease.  
    • Shingles causes >50,000 hospitalizations each year
      Shingles causes around 50,000 to 60,000 hospitalizations each year in the United States.  
    • Increase in flu mortality between 1970 and 1990
      Mortality from influenza increased from between 7,000 and 32,000 annual deaths in the 1970s, to between 36,000 and 72,000 annual deaths in the 1990s.  
    • Flu fatality rates in long-term care facilities
      Case-fatality rates from influenza in residents of long-term care facilities range from 10% to 20%.  
    • Influenza-associated deaths
      The annual number of influenza-associated deaths from respiratory and circulatory cases varies widely from year-to-year, ranging from an estimated 3,349 to 48,614.  
    • Lost productivity and healthcare visits due to flu
      In one year (1995), influenza was responsible for more than: 200 million days of restricted activity 100 million days of bed disability 75 million work absenteeisms 22 million health care provider visits  
    • Healthcare use due to flu
      In the U.S. influenza epidemics lead to around: • 600,000 life years lost • 3 million hospitalized days • 30 million outpatient visits  
    • Hospitalization rate from flu epidemics
      Every influenza epidemic, between 55,000 and 431,000 Americans are hospitalized, with a mean annual hospitalization rate of 226,000.  
    • Mortality rate from hospital-acquired pneumonia
      The mortality rate for hospital-acquired pneumonia ranges from 38% to more than 70%.  
    • In 1998, community-acquired pneumonia was 6th leading cause of death
      Community-acquired pneumonia is the sixth leading cause of death in the U.S. and the number-one cause of death from infection.  
    • Pneumonia killed ~50,000 people in 2010
      In 2010, pneumonia killed around 50,000 Americans.  
    • 1 in 4 inpatient pneumonia hospitalizations due to HAIs
      In one study, one in four inpatient pneumonia hospitalizations were from health-care-associated pneumonia.  
    • Hospitalizations due to pneumonia
      Community-acquired pneumonia is responsible for 350,000 – 620,000 hospitalizations each year in Americans age 65 and older.  
    • >900,000 cases of pneumonia each year
      Each year, more than 900,000 cases of community-acquired pneumonia are estimated to occur in seniors in the U.S.  
    • Lost work due to shingles
      Shingles patients lose an average 129 hours of work per episode.  
    • Physician visits due to infectious diseases
      1 in 4 physician visits are due to infectious diseases.  
    • Tremendous impact of flu epidemics
      Flu epidemics in the U.S. lead to approximately: 600,000 life years lost 3,000,000 days of hospitalization 30,000,000 outpatient visits 48,000 deaths  
    • Pneumonia leading cause of death and infection
      Community-acquired pneumonia was the #6 cause of death and the #1 cause of death from infection in the U.S. in 2003.  
    • Pneumonia is the 5th most frequent cause of hospitalization in the US
      Pneumonia is the 5th most frequent cause of hospitalization in the U.S.  
    • Postherpetic neuralgia in shingles
      Complications, including postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) occur in ~50% of older persons with shingles.  
    • Mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases
      Vaccine-preventable diseases or their complications account for 50,000 to 90,000 adult deaths in the U.S. each year.  
    • Infectious diseases lead to hospitalization
      Number of infectious disease cases that lead to hospitalization every year: Pneumonia >1.1 million Shingles 50,000 to 60,000 Influenza 55,000 to 431,000  
    • Hospitalization rates in shingles patients rises with age
      Hospitalization rates for people with shingles are 75 times higher for people age 85+ than for those under the age of 30.