Infectious Diseases  /  Cost of Disease

Vaccine preventable illnesses and diseases continue to cause significant sickness, hospitalization, pain, disability, and death in the United States.  Pneumonia causes somewhere between 300,000 and 600,000 hospitalizations in older adults each year, and more than 50% of flu-related hospitalizations are in people age 65 and older.  Around 50% of the more than 1 million cases of shingles each year are in people age 60 and older.

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    • Unplanned Hospital Readmissions & Costs Following Sepsis Hospitalizations
      Among 187,697 hospital admissions for medical reasons that were associated with an unplanned 30-day readmission,  147,084 had a diagnosis of sepsis, 15,001 had a diagnosis of AMI, 79,480 were diagnosed with heart failure, 54,396…  
    • Cost of infectious disease in unvaccinated individuals
      Unvaccinated individuals are responsible fror almost 80% ($7.1 billion) of the $9 billion economic burden of vaccine-preventable diseases in 2015.  Note that the cost is based on the vaccine-preventable illnesses…  
    • Cost of vaccine-preventable diseases
      Vaccine-preventable diseases relevant to the ten vaccines recommended for US adults, cost an estimated $9 billion in 2015.  
    • Pneumonia Death Rate by Age in 2004
      Pneumonia Death Rate Per 100,000 By Age: United States, 2004  
    • Flu causes close to 1/2 of lost workdays and low productivity in adults 50-64 during flu season
      During influenza season, influenza-like-illness is responsible for 45% of workdays lost and for 49% of low productivity days among working adults aged 50–64 years.  
    • Shingles causes an average of 129 hours lost work per episode
      Patients with shingles (including those progressing to postherpetic neuralgia) lose an average of over 129 hours of work per episode, including losses of 12 or more hours of work time  
    • Vaccine-eligible account for majority of shingles-related hospitalizations
      The shingles vaccine-eligible population (i.e., persons aged 60 years or older) accounted for 74% of the total annual shingles-related hospital charges in 2004.  
    • Costs of shingles
      Among patients with acute episodes of shingles, average expenditures ranged from $112 to $287 per episode of outpatient care, $73 to $180 per antiviral treatment, and $3,221 to $7,206 per…  
    • Flu costs US $16.3 billion in lost earnings each year
      Lost productivity and loss of life due to influenza amounts to $16.3 billion of lost earnings annually.  
    • >1/2 of flu’s economic burden from people 65+
      An estimated 64% of the total economic burden of influenza comes from those over 65 years old.  
    • Medical expenses for Medicare patients with pneumonia higher
      Medicare patients hospitalized for pneumonia have medical expenses—during the hospitalization and for a year afterwards—that are $15,682 higher than in Medicare patients without pneumonia.  
    • Cost of hospital-treated pneumonia in Medicare patients
      Hospital-treated pneumonia in Medicare patients cost at least $7 billion in 2010.  
    • Cost of pneumonia and flu more than $40 billion in 2005
      In 2005, pneumonia and influenza combined cost the U.S. $40.2 billion—$34.2 in direct costs and $6 billion in indirect mortality costs.  
    • Shingles pain occurs in ~50% of cases in older adults
      Complications of shingles—including postherpetic neuralgia (PHN)—occur in almost 50 percent of older persons with the disease.  
    • Shingles causes >50,000 hospitalizations each year
      Shingles causes around 50,000 to 60,000 hospitalizations each year in the United States.  
    • Increase in flu mortality between 1970 and 1990
      Mortality from influenza increased from between 7,000 and 32,000 annual deaths in the 1970s, to between 36,000 and 72,000 annual deaths in the 1990s.  
    • Flu fatality rates in long-term care facilities
      Case-fatality rates from influenza in residents of long-term care facilities range from 10% to 20%.  
    • Influenza-associated deaths
      The annual number of influenza-associated deaths from respiratory and circulatory cases varies widely from year-to-year, ranging from an estimated 3,349 to 48,614.  
    • Lost productivity and healthcare visits due to flu
      In one year (1995), influenza was responsible for more than: 200 million days of restricted activity 100 million days of bed disability 75 million work absenteeisms 22 million health care provider visits  
    • Healthcare use due to flu
      In the U.S. influenza epidemics lead to around: • 600,000 life years lost • 3 million hospitalized days • 30 million outpatient visits  
    • Hospitalization rate from flu epidemics
      Every influenza epidemic, between 55,000 and 431,000 Americans are hospitalized, with a mean annual hospitalization rate of 226,000.  
    • Mortality rate from hospital-acquired pneumonia
      The mortality rate for hospital-acquired pneumonia ranges from 38% to more than 70%.  
    • In 1998, community-acquired pneumonia was 6th leading cause of death
      Community-acquired pneumonia is the sixth leading cause of death in the U.S. and the number-one cause of death from infection.  
    • Pneumonia killed ~50,000 people in 2010
      In 2010, pneumonia killed around 50,000 Americans.  
    • 1 in 4 inpatient pneumonia hospitalizations due to HAIs
      In one study, one in four inpatient pneumonia hospitalizations were from health-care-associated pneumonia.  
    • Hospitalizations due to pneumonia
      Community-acquired pneumonia is responsible for 350,000 – 620,000 hospitalizations each year in Americans age 65 and older.  
    • Increased rate of hospitalization from shingles
      Hospitalization rates for shingles are 75 times higher in people over 85 than those younger than 30.  
    • 1 in 2 people who live to 85 will get shingles
      Around 1 in 2 people who live to be 85 will get shingles.  
    • Death rate from pneumonia and flu rises significantly with age
      The death rate from pneumonia and influenza is close to 130 times higher in people age 85 and older, compared to people ages 45 to 54. This increased risk due…  
    • Medicare hospitalization rates from pneumonia
      Elderly Medicare patients are hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia at a rate of 18.3 per 1000, compared to 4 per 1000 in younger populations.  
    • Pneumonia in people age 85+
      In the U.S., 1 in every 20 individuals age 85 and older will have a new episode of community-acquired pneumonia each year.  
    • >900,000 cases of pneumonia each year
      Each year, more than 900,000 cases of community-acquired pneumonia are estimated to occur in seniors in the U.S.  
    • 1 in 3 people will develop shingles
      An estimated 1 in 3 people will develop shingles in their lifetime.  
    • ~1 million Americans get shingles each year
      Around 1 million Americans get herpes zoster (shingles) each year.  
    • Flu rates in long-term care facilities
      Residents of long-term care facilities are particularly vulnerable to influenza, with rates of illness that range as high as 25% to 60%.  
    • Every year 5 to 20% of US population gets the flu
      Every year around 5% to 20% of the U.S. population gets influenza.  
    • 35-50 million people get the flu each year
      Between 35 and 50 million Americans get influenza each year.  
    • Annual incidence of pneumonia in Medicare population
      In Medicare beneficiaries, the average cumulative annual incidence of any type of pneumonia was 47.4 per 1,000 from 2005 to 2007.  
    • Pneumonia in nursing home residents
      Every year an estimated 2.3% of nursing home residents acquire pneumonia—more than 33,000 residents.  
    • 5 to 10 million Americans get pneumonia each year
      Between 5 and 10 million Americans get pneumonia each year.  
    • Lost work due to shingles
      Shingles patients lose an average 129 hours of work per episode.  
    • Annual cost of shingles
      Shingles cost ~$1 billion in indirect and direct medical expenses each year.  
    • Lost productivity due to flu
      During flu season, in working adults ages 50 to 64 years old, flu-like illness is responsible for 45% of workdays lost and 49% of low-productivity days.  
    • Annual cost of flu
      The annual direct and indirect cost of flu in the U.S. is more than $87 billion.  
    • Higher hospitalization costs due to pneumonia
      Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for pneumonia have $15,682 higher expenses than those without the infection.  
    • Physician visits due to infectious diseases
      1 in 4 physician visits are due to infectious diseases.  
    • Infectious diseases 15% of all healthcare expenditures
      The annual direct & indirect medical cost of infectious diseases is $120 million, 15% of all U.S. healthcare expenditures.  
    • Tremendous impact of flu epidemics
      Flu epidemics in the U.S. lead to approximately: 600,000 life years lost 3,000,000 days of hospitalization 30,000,000 outpatient visits 48,000 deaths  
    • Pneumonia leading cause of death and infection
      Community-acquired pneumonia was the #6 cause of death and the #1 cause of death from infection in the U.S. in 2003.  
    • Pneumonia is the 5th most frequent cause of hospitalization in the US
      Pneumonia is the 5th most frequent cause of hospitalization in the U.S.  
    • Postherpetic neuralgia in shingles
      Complications, including postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) occur in ~50% of older persons with shingles.  
    • Mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases
      Vaccine-preventable diseases or their complications account for 50,000 to 90,000 adult deaths in the U.S. each year.  
    • Infectious diseases lead to hospitalization
      Number of infectious disease cases that lead to hospitalization every year: Pneumonia >1.1 million Shingles 50,000 to 60,000 Influenza 55,000 to 431,000  
    • Hospitalization rates in shingles patients rises with age
      Hospitalization rates for people with shingles are 75 times higher for people age 85+ than for those under the age of 30.  
    • Hospitalizations from flu increase with age
      People age 65+ account for 50% of flu hospitalizations.  
    • Mortality rates from flu and pneumonia rise significantly with age
      Death rate from pneumonia and flu is 130x higher for ages 85+ compared with people ages 45 to 54. This increased risk due to age is higher than that seen…  
    • 1 in 20 age 85+ will have pneumonia
      Every year 1 in 20 Americans age 85+ will have an episode of community-acquired pneumonia.  
    • High odds of shingles after age 85
      Around 1 in 2 who live to be 85 will get shingles.  
    • 5 – 20% of the U.S. population gets the flu each year
      Between 5% and 20% of the U.S. population gets the flu each year.  
    • Annual pneumonia, flu, and shingles cases
      Approximate annual number of new cases of leading infectious diseases in US: Pneumonia – 5 to 10 million Influenza – 35 to 50 million Herpes zoster (shingles) – 1 million