Infection  /  Human Burden

Every year, between 50,000 and 90,000 adults in the U.S. die from vaccine-preventable infectious diseases or their complications. Many serious infectious diseases are acquired in the healthcare setting and those healthcare-associated infections cost U.S. hospitals between $28.4 and $45 billion each year.

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    • Sepsis in hospitalized patients
      Hospitalized patients with sepsis who survived to 31 days experienced a 16.2% absolute increase in late mortality.  
    • Late Mortality and Sepsis
      Compared with patients not in the hospital, sepsis in hospitalized patients was associated with a 22.1%  increase in late mortality during a 2 year follow-up period.  
    • Comorbidities and hospitalization higher with HAIs
      Patients with HAIs have more comorbidities (2.8 vs. 1.9) and in-hospital mortality (9% vs. 1.5%), compared to all other hospitalized patients.  
    • Source of 99,000 annual deaths from HAIs
      Of the 99,000 annual deaths from HAIs: 35,967 are from pneumonia 30,665 are from bloodstream infections 13,088 are from urinary tract infections 8,205 are from surgical site infections; and 11,062 are from infections at other…  
    • Antibacterial resistant pathogens responsible for most of 99,000 HAI related deaths
      The majority of the 99,000 patients who die from healthcare-associated infections each year, are due to antibacterial-resistant pathogens.  
    • Hospital stays longer when HAIs involved
      The average length of hospital stays are 19 days longer with healthcare-associated infections than without (24.4 days versus 5.2 days).  
    • MRSA kills more than emphysema, HIV/AIDS, Parkinson’s, and homicide combined
      In one year, MRSA killed more Americans (~19,000) than emphysema, HIV/AIDS, Parkinson’s disease, and homicide combined.  
    • Infection and related sepsis leading cause of death in noncardiac-ICUs
      Infection and related sepsis/septicemia are the leading cause of death in noncardiac-ICUs, accounting for as many as 60% of deaths.  
    • Sepsis accounts for 17% of in-hospital deaths
      In 2008, only 2% of hospitalization were for sepsis/septicemia, yet they made up 17% of in-hospital deaths.  
    • Patients hospitalized for sepsis experience poor outcomes
      Compared with patients hospitalized with other diagnoses, patients hospitalized for sepsis/septicemia are: 1/2 as likely to be discharged home 2 times more likely to be discharged to other short-term care 3 times more…  
    • 1 in 10 HAI hospital stays from sepsis
      1 in 10 hospital stays with HAIs have a principal diagnosis of septicemia.  
    • Shingles causes an average of 129 hours lost work per episode
      Patients with shingles (including those progressing to postherpetic neuralgia) lose an average of over 129 hours of work per episode, including losses of 12 or more hours of work time  
    • Vaccine-eligible account for majority of shingles-related hospitalizations
      The shingles vaccine-eligible population (i.e., persons aged 60 years or older) accounted for 74% of the total annual shingles-related hospital charges in 2004.  
    • Shingles pain occurs in ~50% of cases in older adults
      Complications of shingles—including postherpetic neuralgia (PHN)—occur in almost 50 percent of older persons with the disease.  
    • Shingles causes >50,000 hospitalizations each year
      Shingles causes around 50,000 to 60,000 hospitalizations each year in the United States.  
    • Increase in flu mortality between 1970 and 1990
      Mortality from influenza increased from between 7,000 and 32,000 annual deaths in the 1970s, to between 36,000 and 72,000 annual deaths in the 1990s.  
    • Flu fatality rates in long-term care facilities
      Case-fatality rates from influenza in residents of long-term care facilities range from 10% to 20%.  
    • Influenza-associated deaths
      The annual number of influenza-associated deaths from respiratory and circulatory cases varies widely from year-to-year, ranging from an estimated 3,349 to 48,614.  
    • Lost productivity and healthcare visits due to flu
      In one year (1995), influenza was responsible for more than: 200 million days of restricted activity 100 million days of bed disability 75 million work absenteeisms 22 million health care provider visits  
    • Healthcare use due to flu
      In the U.S. influenza epidemics lead to around: • 600,000 life years lost • 3 million hospitalized days • 30 million outpatient visits  
    • Hospitalization rate from flu epidemics
      Every influenza epidemic, between 55,000 and 431,000 Americans are hospitalized, with a mean annual hospitalization rate of 226,000.  
    • Mortality rate from hospital-acquired pneumonia
      The mortality rate for hospital-acquired pneumonia ranges from 38% to more than 70%.  
    • In 1998, community-acquired pneumonia was 6th leading cause of death
      Community-acquired pneumonia is the sixth leading cause of death in the U.S. and the number-one cause of death from infection.  
    • Pneumonia killed ~50,000 people in 2010
      In 2010, pneumonia killed around 50,000 Americans.  
    • 1 in 4 inpatient pneumonia hospitalizations due to HAIs
      In one study, one in four inpatient pneumonia hospitalizations were from health-care-associated pneumonia.  
    • Hospitalizations due to pneumonia
      Community-acquired pneumonia is responsible for 350,000 – 620,000 hospitalizations each year in Americans age 65 and older.  
    • >900,000 cases of pneumonia each year
      Each year, more than 900,000 cases of community-acquired pneumonia are estimated to occur in seniors in the U.S.  
    • Lost work due to shingles
      Shingles patients lose an average 129 hours of work per episode.  
    • Physician visits due to infectious diseases
      1 in 4 physician visits are due to infectious diseases.  
    • Tremendous impact of flu epidemics
      Flu epidemics in the U.S. lead to approximately: 600,000 life years lost 3,000,000 days of hospitalization 30,000,000 outpatient visits 48,000 deaths  
    • Pneumonia leading cause of death and infection
      Community-acquired pneumonia was the #6 cause of death and the #1 cause of death from infection in the U.S. in 2003.  
    • Pneumonia is the 5th most frequent cause of hospitalization in the US
      Pneumonia is the 5th most frequent cause of hospitalization in the U.S.  
    • Postherpetic neuralgia in shingles
      Complications, including postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) occur in ~50% of older persons with shingles.  
    • Mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases
      Vaccine-preventable diseases or their complications account for 50,000 to 90,000 adult deaths in the U.S. each year.  
    • Infectious diseases lead to hospitalization
      Number of infectious disease cases that lead to hospitalization every year: Pneumonia >1.1 million Shingles 50,000 to 60,000 Influenza 55,000 to 431,000  
    • Hospitalization rates in shingles patients rises with age
      Hospitalization rates for people with shingles are 75 times higher for people age 85+ than for those under the age of 30.