Healthcare-Associated Infections  /  Cost of Disease

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    • Sepsis in hospitalized patients
      Hospitalized patients with sepsis who survived to 31 days experienced a 16.2% absolute increase in late mortality.  
    • Late Mortality and Sepsis
      Compared with patients not in the hospital, sepsis in hospitalized patients was associated with a 22.1%  increase in late mortality during a 2 year follow-up period.  
    • HAI Annual Cost
      Healthcare-associated infections in US hospitals cost $96–$147 billion annually.  
    • Comorbidities and hospitalization higher with HAIs
      Patients with HAIs have more comorbidities (2.8 vs. 1.9) and in-hospital mortality (9% vs. 1.5%), compared to all other hospitalized patients.  
    • Sepsis accounts for nearly 1/2 of ICU expenditures
      Infection and related sepsis/septicemia account for 40% of all ICU expenditures.  
    • ~70% of hospital HAIs resistant to ≥ antimicrobial
      Approximately 70% of hospital-acquired HAIs are resistant to at least one antimicrobial drug.  
    • Dramatic increase of antibiotic resistance between 1981 and 2001
      Increase in antibiotic resistance over 20 year period  
    • Source of 99,000 annual deaths from HAIs
      Of the 99,000 annual deaths from HAIs: 35,967 are from pneumonia 30,665 are from bloodstream infections 13,088 are from urinary tract infections 8,205 are from surgical site infections; and 11,062 are from infections at other…  
    • Antibacterial resistant pathogens responsible for most of 99,000 HAI related deaths
      The majority of the 99,000 patients who die from healthcare-associated infections each year, are due to antibacterial-resistant pathogens.  
    • Hospital stays longer when HAIs involved
      The average length of hospital stays are 19 days longer with healthcare-associated infections than without (24.4 days versus 5.2 days).  
    • Most common principal diagnoses for hospitalized patients with HAIs
      The most common principal diagnoses for hospitalized patients with HAIs are: Septicemia 11.8% Adult respiratory failure 5.9% Complications from surgical or medical care 4.1%  
    • >20% of drug-resistant pneumonia in nursing homes
      More than 20% of drug-resistant cases of pneumonia in 2010 occurred in nursing home residents.  
    • Majority of C. diff deaths in ages 65+
      More than 90% of deaths from C. difficile infectious occur in people ages 65 and older.  
    • Sepsis hospitalization rate increases with age
      The rate of hospitalization for sepsis/septicemia in 2008 was around 30 times higher for patients ages 85 and older, than for those under the age of 65.  
    • Risk of HAIs from hospitalization increases with age
      Hospitalized elderly patients are 2 – 5 times more likely to develop a healthcare-associated infection than younger patients.  
    • Enormous annual direct cost of HAIs to hospitals
      The annual direct cost of healthcare-associated infections to U.S. hospitals ranges from $28.4 billion to $45 billion.  
    • 10 most common pathogens leading to HAIs
      The 10 most common pathogens leading to HAIs: Coagulase-negative staphylococci 15% Staphylococcus aureus 15% Enterococcus species 12% Candida species 11% Escherichia coli 10% Pseudomonas aeruginosa 8% Klebsiella pneumoniae 6% Enterobacter species 5% Acinetobacter baumannii 3% Klebsiella oxytoca 2%  
    • 75% of c. diff infections start in places like nursing homes and physician offices
      75% of clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infections, a common HAI, start in places like nursing homes and physician offices.  
    • ~1 in 20 hospitalized patients will get an HAI
      Around 1 in 20 hospitalized patients will contract a healthcare-associated infection, the most common complication of hospital care.  
    • ~1.7 million Americans develop hospital-acquired HAIs annually
      Approximately 1.7 million Americans develop hospital-acquired HAIs each year.  
    • MRSA kills more than emphysema, HIV/AIDS, Parkinson’s, and homicide combined
      In one year, MRSA killed more Americans (~19,000) than emphysema, HIV/AIDS, Parkinson’s disease, and homicide combined.  
    • MRSA infections increase in older patients
      In 2008, 75% of healthcare-associated invasive MRSA infections occurred in patients older than 50, with 46% in patients older than 65%.  
    • Close to 1/2 of HAIs in patients 65+
      Around 45% of all hospital-acquired HAIs in 2007 were in patients age 65 and older.  
    • ~3/4 of all HAIs occur outside of ICU
      Nearly 3/4 of all hospital-acquired HAIs occur outside of the intensive care unit (ICU).  
    • Primary sources of HAIs
      Around 2/3 of all HAIs are central-line associated bloodstream infections, catheter-associated urinary tract infections, and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Surgical site infections and Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) are also common HAIs.  
    • HAIs cost patients additional $43,000 per hospital stay
      Patients with HAIs cost, on average, $43,000 more per hospital stay than those without an infection ($52,096 vs. $9,377).  
    • Drug-resistant MRSA expensive to treat
      As an example, the median treatment cost for drug-resistant MRSA patients over a 6-month period was 118% higher than the cost of treating drug-susceptible MRSA strains.  
    • Around $35 billion cost to society from antibiotic resistant infections
      The societal costs of antibiotic resistant infections are around $35 billion each year- this includes the cost of lost wages and premature deaths.  
    • Drug resistant infections cost $16.6 – $26 billion to US healthcare system annually
      Drug-resistant infections cost the U.S. healthcare system between $16.6 and $26 billion in extra costs each year.  
    • Drug-resistant infections increase length & cost of hospital stays
      Drug-resistant infections increase the length of hospital stays by more than 23% and the cost by close to 30%.  
    • Infection and related sepsis leading cause of death in noncardiac-ICUs
      Infection and related sepsis/septicemia are the leading cause of death in noncardiac-ICUs, accounting for as many as 60% of deaths.  
    • Sepsis accounts for 17% of in-hospital deaths
      In 2008, only 2% of hospitalization were for sepsis/septicemia, yet they made up 17% of in-hospital deaths.  
    • Patients hospitalized for sepsis experience poor outcomes
      Compared with patients hospitalized with other diagnoses, patients hospitalized for sepsis/septicemia are: 1/2 as likely to be discharged home 2 times more likely to be discharged to other short-term care 3 times more…  
    • 1 in 10 HAI hospital stays from sepsis
      1 in 10 hospital stays with HAIs have a principal diagnosis of septicemia.  
    • C. difficile-related deaths on the rise
      Between 1999 and 2004, C. difficile-related deaths in the U.S. increased 35% each year.  
    • Significant increase of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus penumoniae
      High-level penicillin-resistant Steptococcus pneumoniae increased 1,000-fold over 17 years.  
    • Antibiotic resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae on the rise
      Resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae to antibiotics has dramatically increased- from 5.3% to 11.6% for third generation cephalosporins (between 1999 and 2010), and from <0.1% to 4.5% for carbapenams (between 2002…  
    • Majority of physicians treated patient with at least 1 drug-resistant infection
      63% of surveyed infectious disease physicians treated a patient with at least one drug-resistant infection in 2011. 56% believed those infections to be on the rise.  
    • Mortality rate from hospital-acquired pneumonia
      The mortality rate for hospital-acquired pneumonia ranges from 38% to more than 70%.  
    • 1 in 4 inpatient pneumonia hospitalizations due to HAIs
      In one study, one in four inpatient pneumonia hospitalizations were from health-care-associated pneumonia.  
    • Hospital-acquired pneumonia leading cause of HAI
      Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is the 2nd most frequent cause of hospital-acquired infection, numbering around 300,000 cases each year.