Cardiovascular Disease

Approximately 85.6 million Americans suffer from some form of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and close to 1 in 3 deaths result from CVD. These are not only deadly but costly diseases with CVD and stroke costing around $320 billion each year.

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    • Tobacco smoking as a major risk factor
      Worldwide, tobacco smoking (including second-hand smoke) was 1 of the top 3 leading risk factors for disease and contributed to an estimated 6.2 million deaths in 2010.  
    • Annual strokes: new and recurrent
      Each year, about 795,000 people experience a new (~610,000 cases) or recurrent (~185,000 cases) stroke.  
    • Stroke deaths and disability
      Stroke accounts for 1 of every 20 deaths in the US and is a leading cause of serious long-term disability.  
    • Heart attack annual incidence
      The estimated annual incidence of heart attack in the US is 580,000 new attacks and 210,000 recurrent attacks.   The average age at the first heart attack is about 65 for…  
    • Cardiovascular disease death rates broken down by category
      Coronary Heart Disease is the leading cause (45.1%) of deaths attributable to cardiovascular disease in the US, followed by stroke (16.5 percent), Heart Failure (8.5%), High Blood Pressure (9.1%), diseases…  
    • Cardiovascular disease death rates
      Cardiovascular disease accounts for nearly 801,000 deaths in the US, or about 1 of every 3 deaths in the US.  
    • Number of Americans living with cardiovasuclar disease
      About 92.1 million American adults are living with some form of cardiovascular disease or the after-effects of stroke.  
    • Between 2.7 and 6.1 million Americans have AFib.  
    • The heart can beat upwards of 175 times or more per minute during an AFib episode.  
    • Using technologies as treatment for heart disease helps generate cost savings, including a total of $1930 annual savings per person, and a $1.5 billion increased tax revenue  
    • Heart disease leads to 600,000 deaths per year in the U.S.  
    • AFib prevalence estimates
      Atrial fibrillation is the most common heart arrhythmia in the U.S. Often going undiagnosed, AFib prevalence estimates vary between 2.7 million and 6.1 million Americans.  
    • Age as a risk factor of Afib
      At age 60, 1 in 25 Americans have AFib. At age 80+, this increases to nearly 1 in 10.  
    • AFib prevalence as population ages
      As our population continues to age, prevalence of Afib is going to skyrocket, to a projected 5.6 to 15.9 million adults by 2050.  
    • Projected AFib prevalence
      Projected increases in the prevalence of Afib  
    • AFib, an economic burden
      AFib is a major economic burden for the U.S. with at least $6.65 billion in healthcare costs attributable to the disease each year. This estimate may be low. One study…  
    • Risk of stroke in people with AFib
      The risk of having a stroke increases 5-fold in individuals with AFib. Individuals with AFib also have more severe and recurrent strokes than those without the disease.  
    • Inpatient & outpatient AFib treatment costs
      Distribution of inpatient and selected outpatient costs for treating AFib.  
    • AFib-related stroke and disability
      Stroke is very disabling and individuals recovering from a stroke who also have AFib have a higher risk of remaining disable or handicapped compared to stroke patients without AFib.  
    • Heart failure in people with AFib
      AFib can also lead to heart failure. Within the first year of diagnosis, AFib patients have a 36.7% chance of experiencing heart failure– compared to 10.4% in those without AFib.  
    • AFib doubles dementia risk
      Individuals with AFib have a twice the risk of dementia.  
    • AFib increases mortality risk
      Most importantly, AFib double the person’s risk of death and is the cause of nearly 100,000 deaths in the U.S. each year.  
    • Quality of life in AFib patients
      Individuals with AFib report substantially worse quality of life compared to those without the disease  
    • Annual direct cost of Afib
      Average annual cost comparison between patients with and without atrial fibrillation  
    • Medical service utilization in AFib
      Medical service utilization in persons with and without atrial fibrillation  
    • Annual AFib care
      Each year AFib leads to around 350,000 hospitalizations, 5 million office visits, 276,000 emergency department visits, and 234,000 hospital outpatient department visits.  
    • Average length of stay for major bleeding complications
      The average length of stay for major bleeding complications is six days.  
    • Hospitalization costs for patients with nonrecurrent ischemic stroke
      The cost of hospitalization for patients with nonrecurrent ischemic stroke is $4,991 more in patients with atrial fibrillation, than in patients without the disease.        
    • Hospital costs for ischemic stroke
      Hospital costs for nonrecurrent ischemic stroke are 20% higher in patients with atrial fibrillation, than in patients without the disease.  
    • As many as 5 million Americans are diagnosed with heart valve disease each year.  
    • By 2030, the lost of productivity from those with cardiovascular disease will cost $276 billion compared to $176 billion in 2010.  
    • By 2030, the medical costs for cardiovascular disease will triple to $818 billion from 2010.  
    • By 2030, a projected 40% of Americans will be diagnosed with cardiovascular disease.  
    • In 2009, 1 million Americans were hospitalized for stroke.  
    • The direct medical costs and indirect costs in loss of productivity of heart disease and stroke in the U.S. was estimated at $315.4 billion in 2010.  
    • Between 2000 and 2010, inpatient cardiovascular operations grew from 593,900 to 758,800 annually.  
    • Stroke is responsible for 1 in every 19 deaths in the U.S.  
    • Every 4 minutes someone in the U.S. dies from a stroke.  
    • Every 40 seconds someone in the U.S. dies from cardiovascular disease.  
    • The mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease was 235.5 per 100,000 people in 2010.  
    • The mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease was 235.5 per 100,000 people in 2010.  
    • Heart disease costs the U.S. $108.9 billion a year–including direct medical expenses and indirect cost in lost of productivity.  
    • Each year in the United States,715,000 people have a heart attack.  
    • Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the U.S.  
    • 1/4 of all deaths in the U.S. are attributable to heart disease.  
    • Annual strokes from AFib
      Atrial fibrillation accounts for between 75,000 and 100,000 strokes per year.  
    • A study exploring the decline in deaths attributable to cardiovascular disease in the U.S. from 1980 to 2000 suggested that approximately 47% of the decrease was due to the increased…  
    • From 2010 to 2030, the total direct medical costs of cardiovascular disease (in 2008 dollars) are projected to triple–from $273 billion to $818 billion.  
    • By 2030, it is projected that an additional 4 million people will have had a stroke–a 25% increase in prevalence from 2010.  
    • By 2030, it is projected that an additional 3 million people will have heart failure–a 25% increase in prevalence from 2010.  
    • The mean lifetime cost of ischemic stroke in the U.S. is estimated at $140,048–this includes inpatient care, rehabilitation, and follow-up care.  
    • The mean cost per person with stroke in the U.S. in 2007 was estimated at $7,657.  
    • The estimated direct medical cost of stroke in 2008 was $18.8 billion–this includes hospital outpatient stays, emergency department visits, prescribed medications, and home health care.  
    • In 2006, $32.7 billion in program payments were made to Medicare beneficiaries who were discharged from short-stay hospitals with a primary diagnosis of cardiovascular disease–an average of $10,201 per discharge.  
    • The 695,000 hospital stays from acute myocardial infarction in 2004 resulted in $31 billion in inpatient hospital charges.  
    • The 1.1 million hospitalizations for congestive heart failure in 2004 resulted in nearly $29 billion in hospital charges.  
    • In 2004, coronary artery disease was the most expensive condition treated, resulting in more than $44 billion in expenses.  
    • Within 1 year of a transient ischemic attack, around 12% of patients will die.  
    • Atrial fibrillation increases stroke risk
      Atrial fibrillation increases the risk of stroke 5- fold.  
    • Acute myocardial infarction resulted in 695,000 hospital stays in 2004.  
    • In 2004, coronary artery disease was responsible for an estimated 1.2 million hospital stays.  
    • Of those admitted to the hospital for cardiovascular disease–3.3% died in the hospital. This is significantly higher than the average in-hospital death rate of 2.1% for all hospitalized patients.  
    • Atrial Fibrillation prevalence increase from 1992 to 2002
      Among Medicare patients ages 65 and older, atrial fibrillation prevalence increased from 3.2% in 1992 to 6.0% in 2002–with higher prevalence in older patients.  
    • At admission, 23.7% of nursing home residents in 2004 had a primary diagnosis of cardiovascular disease–the leading primary diagnosis for nursing home residents.  
    • In 2008, cardiovascular disease accounted for 32.8% of all deaths in the U.S.–811,940, or 1 of every 3 deaths in the U.S.  
    • The average annual rates for first cardiovascular event rise drastically with age–from 3 per 1,000 men from 33 to 44 years old, to 74 per 1,000 men in the 85…  
    • By 2030, 40.5% of the U.S. population is projected to have some form of cardiovascular disease.  
    • Between 1998 and 2008, the stroke death rate fell 34.8%. The actual number of stroke deaths declined 19.4%.  
    • Between 1998 and 2008, the rate of death attributable to cardiovascular disease declined 30.6%.  
    • If all forms of cardiovascular disease were eliminated, life expectancy would rise by almost 7 years.  
    • Over the next 20 years, medical costs of coronary heart disease are projected to increase by around 200%.  
    • Atrial fibrillation prevalence projection, 2050
      Atrial fibrillation prevalence is projected to rise to between 5.6 and 12.1 million in 2050.  
    • The estimated direct and indirect cost of high blood pressure in 2008 was $50.6 billion.  
    • In 2006, $11.7 billion was paid to Medicare beneficiaries for in-hospital costs when coronary heart disease was the principal diagnosis.  
    • The estimated direct and indirect cost of heart disease in 2008 was $190.3 billion.  
    • In 2008, the estimated direct and indirect cost of cardiovascular disease was $297.7 billion.  
    • The average cost per cardiovascular hospitalization in 2005 was around 41% higher than the average cost for all stays.  
    • The total inpatient hospital cost for cardiovascular disease was $71.2 billion in 2005. This is equal to approximately one fourth of the total cost of inpatient hospital care in…  
    • In 2009, stroke as a first-listed diagnosis was the cause of 3.3 million physician office visits, 768,000 emergency department visits and 127,000 outpatient department visits.  
    • When considered separately from other forms of cardiovascular disease, stroke ranks as the 4th leading cause of death in the U.S.  
    • Stroke accounts for 1 in every 18 deaths in the U.S.  
    • Every 4 minutes, someone in the U.S. dies from a stroke.  
    • In 2009, 372,000 hospitalizations had hypertension listed as the first diagnosis.  
    • The number of ambulatory medical care visits for hypertension was 55 million in 2009–49,966,000 physician office visits, 1,000,000 emergency department visits, and 4,182,000 outpatient visits.  
    • Between 1998 and 2009, the number of inpatient discharged from short-stay hospitals with high blood pressure as the first-listed diagnosis increased from 439,000 to 579,000. The number of all-listed…  
    • Between 1998 and 2008, the death rate from high blood pressure increased by 20% and the actual number of deaths rose by almost 50%.  
    • In 2008, around 61,000 Americans died from high blood pressure. Any-mention mortality was 347,689.  
    • In 2009 there were 3,041,000 physician office visits with a primary diagnosis of heart failure. There were also 668,000 emergency department visits and 293,000 outpatient department visits.  
    • Around 50% of people diagnosed with heart failure will die within 5 years.  
    • 1 in 9 deaths has heart failure mentioned on the death certificate.  
    • In 2008, any-mention mortality was 281,437 for heart failure. It was the underlying cause of death in 56,830 of those deaths.  
    • Atrial fibrillation on death certificates
      In 2008, atrial fibrillation was mentioned on 99,294 death certificates in the U.S. and was the underlying cause of death in 15,383.  
    • In 2009, there were 12,826,000 physician office visits, 639,000 emergency department visits, and 589,000 outpatient department visits with a primary diagnosis of coronary heart disease.  
    • In 2009, there were 14,044,000 ambulatory care visits with coronary heart disease as the first-listed diagnosis.  
    • In 2007, the overall coronary heart disease death rate was 126 per 100,000 people.  
    • People who have had a myocardial infarction have a sudden death rate that is 4 to 6 times higher than the general public.  
    • The estimated average number of years of life lost because of myocardial infarction is 16.6.  
    • Around 15% of those who experience a myocardial infarction in a given year will die from it.  
    • Around 34% of those who experience a coronary attack in a given year will die from it.  
    • Every minute, someone in the U.S. will die from a coronary event.  
    • In 2008, 405,309 people died of coronary heart disease.  
    • Coronary heart disease was the cause of 1 out of every 6 deaths in the U.S. in 2008.  
    • In 2005, around 1 out of every 6 hospital stays–close to 6 million–resulted from cardiovascular disease.  
    • In 2009, 94,871,000 physician office visits resulted in a primary diagnosis of cardiovascular disease.  
    • Heart disease, stroke, and hypertension are among the 15 leading causes of disability in the U.S.  
    • In 2008, diseases of the heart were the leading cause of death from women 65 years and older in the U.S.  
    • With the exception of 1918, cardiovascular disease has been the leading cause of death in the U.S. since 1900.  
    • Every 39 seconds, someone in the U.S. dies from cardiovascular disease.  
    • More than 2,200 Americans die from cardiovascular disease each day–an average of 1 death every 39 seconds.  
    • The overall rate of death attributable to cardiovascular disease in 2008 was 244.8 per 100,000.  
    • AFib attributed stroke rate by age
      The percentage of strokes attributable to atrial fibrillation increases from 1.5% at ages 50 to 59, to 23.5% at ages 80 to 89.  
    • Average age at death from stroke, 2002
      In 2002, the mean age at death from stroke was 79.6 years.  
    • An estimated 7 million Americans age 20 and older have had a stroke.  
    • Atrial fibrillation incidence in women
      Atrial fibrillation in women ranged from 6.6 per 100,000 people per year for patients between the ages of 15 and 44 to 1,203.7 per 100,000 people per year for patients…  
    • Atrial fibrillation as the primary discharge diagnosis rates
      Atrial fibrillation was listed as the primary discharge diagnosis in 20.6 per 100,000 people per year for patients between the ages of 15 and 44 and 1,077.4 per 100,000 people…  
    • Average age of AFib patients
      The mean age for atrial fibrillation is 66.8 years in men and 74.6 years in women.  
    • At 65 years and older 25% of white men, 30% of white women, 25% of black men, and 30% of black women will die within one year of their first…  
    • Around 81% of people who die from coronary heart disease are 65 years and older.  
    • The average age at a first myocardial infarction is 64.5 years for men and 70.3 years for women.  
    • Of the estimated 82.6 million Americans who have one or more types of cardiovascular disease, 40 million are estimated to be age 60 or older.  
    • Every 40 seconds, someone in the U.S. has a stroke.  
    • Each year, around 795,000 Americans experience a new or recurrent stroke–around 610,000 are first attacks and 185,000 are recurrent.  
    • Around 33.5% of Americans age 20 years and older have hypertension.  
    • An estimated 76.4 million Americans age 20 years and older have hypertension.  
    • Around 8% of adults in the U.S. have undiagnosed hypertension.  
    • 1 in 3 adults in the U.S. has high blood pressure.  
    • At age 40, the lifetime risk of developing heart failure for both men and women is 1 in 5.  
    • An estimated 5.7 million Americans 20 years of age and older have heart failure.  
    • Atrial fibrillation prevalence, 2012
      Atrial fibrillation is estimated to impact between 2.7 and 6.1 million Americans.  
    • Every 25 seconds, someone in the U.S. will experience a coronary event.  
    • Among current home health care patients in 2007, 18.3% had a primary diagnosis of cardiovascular disease at admission.  
    • Around 7.9 million Americans have had a myocardial infarction.  
    • This year, around 785,000 Americans will have a new coronary attack. Around 470,000 will have a recurrent attack.  
    • Around 16.3 million Americans have coronary heart disease.  
    • The lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease at age 40 is 2 in 3 for men and less than 1 in 2 for women.  
    • An estimated 82,600,000 adult Americans–1 in 3–have one or more types of cardiovascular disease.  
    • Savings associated with t-PA treatment for ischemic stroke patients
      A $600 net savings is associated with each ischemic stroke patient treated with t-PA. In 2005, only 2% of all ischemic stroke patients received t-PA. If that percentage was increased…  
    • Stroke prevention through optimal anticoagulation
      If half of atrial fibrillation patients who currently receive warfarin in a routine care setting had their anti-coagulation optimized, around 9,000 strokes and more than 29,000 bleeds would be prevented.  
    • Effect of optimal anticoagulation
      If 50% of atrial fibrillation patients who currently receive warfarin in routine medical care were optimally anticoagulated, 9,852 emboli would be prevented and $1.3 billion would be saved each year.  
    • Effects of optimal anticoagulation among AFib patients
      If 50% of individuals with atrial fibrillation who do not receive prophylaxis were optimally anti-coagulated, 19,380 emboli would be prevented and $1.1 billion would be saved each year.  
    • Cost-savings associated with optimal anticoagulation in AFib patients
      If half of all atrial fibrillation patients receiving suboptimal or no anticoagulation instead received optimal anticoagulation, 28,000 strokes could be prevented each year at a savings of around $2.5 billion in direct…  
    • Effectiveness of treating ischemic strokert-PA within 3 hours of symptom onset
      A study of the  victims with effectiveness of treating ischemic strokert-PA within 3 hours of symptom onset showed a decrease in rehabilitation costs of $1.4 million and nursing home costs of…  
    • t-PA cost savings
      The total annual benefit to society from t-PA use in the United States is around $363 million—$60 million in direct cost savings to society plus an additional 7,510 QALYs. This means…  
    • Per-patient annual cost of treating stroke in atrial fibrillation patients
      The per-patient annual cost of treating stroke in atrial fibrillation patients was found to be $1,485 in a wellcontrolled anti-coagulation clinic, $3,710 for those receiving warfarin in routine medical care,…  
    • Cost of warfarin therapy for AFib patients
      In patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) and one additional stroke risk factor, warfarin therapy cost $8,000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) saved.  
    • Cost-savings associated with Warfarin use in AFib patients
      Warfarin use in Medicare patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation was independently associated with lower medical costs averaging $9,836 per patient, per year.  
    • AFib practice guidelines reduce direct health care costs
      The use of practice guidelines in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients significantly decreased hospitalization and resource utilization—with an average decrease in 30-day total direct health care costs of around $1,400 per patient.  
    • Effectiveness of an oral pharmacologic agent in preventing venous thrombosis
      An oral pharmacologic agent has been demonstrated to be at least as effective as an injectable anticoagulant in the prevention of venous thrombosis following hip replacement.  
    • Direct thrombin inhibitor reduced relative risk of venous thromboembolism
      An investigational direct thrombin inhibitor reduced relative risk of venous thromboembolism after total hip replacement surgery by 65.7%—compared to a currently available treatment.  
    • Anti-platelet therapy stroke risk reduction
      Anti-platelet therapy after a stroke or TIA reduces the risk of nonfatal ischemic strokes by 28% and fatal strokes by 16%.  
    • Aspirin as stroke prevention
      Aspirin reduces stroke rate by 20% in patients with myocardial infarction.  
    • Pioglitazone associated with relative risk reduction in recurrent stroke
      The PROactive trial to manage glucose in diabetics with a history of cardiovascular disease, stroke, or other vascular risk factors found that treatment with pioglitazone was associated with a 47% relative…  
    • Antihypertensive drugs used to reduce stroke recurrence
      Treatment of high blood pressure with antihypertensive drugs is associated with a significant reduction in risk of recurrent stroke.  
    • Lowering blood pressure associated with reduction in stroke risk
      Lowering of blood pressure is associated with a 30% to 40% reduction in stroke risk.  
    • Effectiveness of treating ischemic stroke victims with rt-PA within 3 hours of symptom onset
      A study of the effectiveness of treating ischemic stroke victims with rt-PA within 3 hours of symptom onset found an estimated impact on long-term health outcomes of 564 quality-adjusted life-years saved…  
    • Identifying individuals at high risk for developing AFib
      Using simple bedside measures, identification of individuals at risk for developing atrial fibrillation is feasible. Selecting high-risk individuals for inclusion in atrial fibrillation prevention trials may also enhance prevention strategies.  
    • Catheter ablation reduces risk of stroke and death among AFib patients
      Atrial fibrillation patients who underwent catheter ablation had a reduced risk of stroke and death—2.2% of those who had ablation experienced stroke versus 4.7% on medications alone, and 6% died from…  
    • Decrease in AFib hospitalization rates
      The use of practice guidelines in atrial fibrillation patients saw a decrease in rate of hospitalization from 74%to 38%.  
    • Stroke risk reduction from thrombin inhibitor in AFib patients
      A recently approved direct thrombin inhibitor was found to reduce the risk of stroke/peripheral embolic events in atrial fibrillation patients by 34%, and the risk of hemorrhagic stroke by 74%—compared…  
    • Adjusted-dose warfarin reduced stroke risk in AFib patients
      Meta-analysis of randomized trials found that adjusted-dose warfarin reduced stroke risk in atrial fibrillation patients by 60%. Antiplatelet agents reduced risk by 20%.  
    • Aspirin use in AFib patients
      Meta-analysis of a number of randomized controlled trials found that aspirin use in atrial fibrillation patients reduced stroke risk by an average 22%.  
    • Stroke rates among Afib patients
      In one year, 58,283 of the 1.265 million Medicare beneficiaries with atrial fibrillation that did not receive prophylaxis suffered a stroke. For those who did receive anti-coagulants, 38,468 suffered strokes.  
    • The projected total cost of ischemic stroke from 2005 to 2050 (in 2005 dollars) is around $2.2 trillion.  
    • Total direct and indirect costs of stroke in the U.S. are projected to reach $140 billion by 2030. This represents a 238% change in direct costs compared to 2010, and…  
    • If current trends in mortality continue, the United States will see a doubling in deaths from ischemic strokebetween 2003 and 2033.  
    • By 2030, the prevalence of stroke is projected to increase approximately 25%. This means there will bean additional 4 million Americans with stroke (compared to 2010).  
    • Predicted incidence of VTE, 2050
      The incidence of VTE is predicted to more than double by 2050—from 0.95 million in 2006 to 1.82 million in 2050.  
    • AFib patients over age 80, 2050
      By 2050, it is estimated that more than 50% of Americans with atrial fibrillation will be age 80 and older.  
    • AFib prevalence rate projection, 2050
      By 2050, it is estimated that 88% of Americans with atrial fibrillation will be age 65 and older.  
    • Projected AFib incidence, 2050
      If current incidence estimates are applied to Census Bureau projections, by 2050 the number of Americans with atrial fibrillation could exceed 12 million. If increases in incidence continue, that number could…  
    • AFib prevalence projected to double by 2050
      By 2050, the prevalence of atrial fibrillation will have more than doubled since 2001—growing to an estimated 5.6 million to 12.1 million Americans.  
    • Breakdown of Direct Costs of Stroke (Short Term and Long Term) by Type of Expense  
    • Annual AFib-related stroke Medicare costs
      Stroke in Medicare patients with atrial fibrillation who were not treated with anticoagulants, cost Medicare $4.8 billion each year in direct costs. Those who had strokes despite prophylactic treatment cost an additional…  
    • In 2006, $3.9 billion was paid to Medicare beneficiaries discharged from short-stay hospitals for stroke.  
    • The mean hospitalization costs for patients admitted for stroke range from $8,000 to $23,000 (in 2008 dollars).  
    • The estimated cost of stroke for the first 30 days after the event is $20,346 for severe ischemic strokes and $13,019 for mild ones.  
    • The mean lifetime cost of ischemic stroke is an estimated $140,048.  
    • Of the $73.7 billion cost of stroke in 2010—$21 billion was for hospital costs, $17.1 billion for nursing home costs, $3.8 billion for physicians and other professionals, $1.3 billion for…  
    • The annual direct and indirect costs of stroke are between $40.9 billion and $73.7 billion.  
    • Difference in inpatient care costs between hip-fracture repair patients
      The difference in inpatient care costs between patients who developed venous thromboembolism after orthopedic surgery and those who didn’t, was highest among those who underwent hip-fracture repair. Costs were $10,000 to $13,000…  
    • Inpatient costs for VTE versus no VTE event
      The mean total cost for inpatient care of patients who develop in-hospital venous thromboembolism (VTE) after orthopedic surgery is almost double compared to those who don’t develop VTE—$17,114 for deep vein thrombosis…  
    • Annual cost of treating privately insured patients for AFib
      The annual cost of treating privately insured patients for atrial fibrillation (AF) is $12,350 per patient— approximately 5 times greater than treating patients without AF.  
    • Healthcare costs of atrial fibrillation
      Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major economic burden for society with the biggest cost driver being hospitalizations—accounting for 52% of costs. Drugs for AF account for 23% of costs, consultations…  
    • Annual cost of AFib-related stroke in Medicare patients
      The annual cost of stroke in Medicare patients with atrial fibrillation is estimated at $8 billion.  
    • Total medical costs for Afib patients over 15-month period
      A study of Medicare beneficiaries with atrial fibrillation found that total medical costs for treating these patients during a 15-month follow-up period were an average of $24,000 per patient—63% of…  
    • Cost of AFib-related stroke in Medicare patients
      The incremental treatment costs associated with stroke in the year following diagnosis of atrial fibrillation are an estimated $7,907 per Medicare patient.  
    • One-Year Cost Component for Atrial Fibrillation & Non AF Medicare Patients
      One-Year Cost Component for AF & Non AF Medicare Patients  
    • AFib Medicare cost
      Medicare alone is estimated to pay $15.7 billion per year to treat newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation patients.  
    • Atrial fibrillation costs
      Around 73% of total U.S. atrial fibrillation costs are for inpatient expenses.  
    • Distribution of inpatient and selected outpatient costs for treating atrial fibrillation
      Distribution of inpatient and selected outpatient costs for treating atrial fibrillation  
    • Direct medical costs for treatment of atrial fibrillation, 2001
      The direct medical costs for ambulatory and outpatient treatment of atrial fibrillation patients in 2001 was  an estimated $1.76 billion. Office visits accounted for 66% of those costs, emergency department…  
    • Estimated hospital costs for atrial fibrillation patients, 2001
      The estimated costs for hospitalization of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients in 2001 were $2.93 billion for patients with AF as their primary discharge diagnosis.  
    • AFib treatment costs, 2001
      In 2001, the estimated treatment costs of atrial fibrillation were $6.65 billion per year—this included hospitalization costs, in- and out-patient care, and medications. This did not include costs of stroke…  
    • In one year alone (1990), stroke led to more than 100,000 nursing home admissions with a mean length of stay of 432 days.  
    • Stroke was listed as the first-diagnoses for 3,764,000 ambulatory care visits in 2007.  
    • The mean length of stay for patients hospitalized for stroke ranges from 4.6 to 12.4 days.  
    • In 2004, stroke hospitalizations totaled 726,000.  
    • After a stroke, 15% to 30% of survivors are permanently disabled and 20% require institutional care at 3 months after the stroke.  
    • Of those that survive a stroke, only 10% recover completely.  
    • Of those who survived a stroke, 30% received outpatient rehabilitation.  
    • Ischemic stroke survivors who were 65 years and older had the following disabilities 6 months after their stroke:• 50% had some one-sided paralysis• 30% needed help walking• 26% needed help…  
    • Stroke is a leading cause of serious long-term disability in the United States.  
    • Every 4 minutes, on average, someone dies of a stroke.  
    • Within 30 days of ischemic stroke, 8.1% of people age 65 and older were dead.  
    • The mean age at death from stroke was 79.6 in 2002.  
    • Stroke is a contributory cause of death for around 230,000 people each year.  
    • One in every 18 deaths in the United States is caused by stroke.  
    • Stroke is the third most common cause of death in the United States, when considered separately from other cerebrovascular diseases.  
    • Effect of hip and knee replacement surgeries on risk of VTE
      Hip and knee replacement surgeries significantly raise the risk of venous thromboembolism—without prophylaxis around half develop deep vein thrombosis and 1% to 2% develop pulmonary embolism.  
    • Average length of stay in intensive care for VTE patients after surgery
      The mean length of stay in the intensive care unit for patients hospitalized after major orthopedic surgery  was roughly ten times longer for patients who developed venous thromboembolism.  
    • Average length of hospital stay for VTE patients after surgery
      The mean length of stay for patients hospitalized after major orthopedic surgery was more than twice as  long for patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE)—as compared to those without VTE. VTE…  
    • Venous thromboembolism hospitalization rates
      An estimated 250,000 patients are hospitalized each year with venous thromboembolism.  
    • Venous thromboembolism (VTE) outcomes
      Of the more than 200,000 new cases of venous thromboembolism (VTE) that occur each year, 30% die within 30 days, 20% suffer a sudden death from pulmonary embolism, and around…  
    • Symptomatic venous thromboembolism outcomes
      Around one-third of patients with symptomatic venous thromboembolism manifest pulmonary embolism. Two-thirds manifest deep vein thrombosis alone. Death occurs within 1 month of diagnosis in approximately 6% of deep vein…  
    • Venous thromboembolism in the community
      More than 50% of all cases of venous thromboembolism in the community can be attributed to institutionalization.  
    • Undetected pulmonary embolism
      More than 59% of the 300,000 people who die from venous thromboembolism in the U.S. each year have undetected pulmonary embolism.  
    • In-hospital deaths caused by venous thromboembolism
      The number of in-hospital deaths that are caused by venous thromboembolism is more than five times the number of deaths caused by all hospital-acquired infections.  
    • Venous thromboembolism in hospital mortality rate
      About 1 in 8 patients who develop venous thromboembolism in the hospital will die as a result.  
    • Venous thromboembolism mortality rate
      Venous thromboembolism causes an estimated 300,000 deaths each year.  
    • Depression and anxiety in AFib patients
      Around 1/3 of atrial fibrillation patients have elevated levels of depression and anxiety.  
    • Hospital readmission rates among AFib patients
      In the year following initial hospitalization for atrial fibrillation (AF), 12.5% of chronic AF patients were readmitted for AF—17.6% of readmissions occurred within 1 month. Among newly-diagnosed patients, 10.1% were…  
    • AFib patient hospital visits
      Individuals with atrial fibrillation (AF) are 4 times more likely to visit the hospital 3 or more times in the year following an AF diagnosis—compared to those without the disease.  
    • Medical care rates during the year following an AFib diagnosis
      A study of Medicare beneficiaries found that during the year following an atrial fibrillation (AF) diagnosis: • 28% of AF patients (versus 7% of non-AF patients) had 3 or more hospital…  
    • Medical care associated with atrial fibrillation, 2001
      In 2001, atrial fibrillation was the cause of around: • 350,000 hospitalizations • 5 million office visits • 276,000 emergency department visits • 234,000 out-patient visits  
    • AFib strokes occurring in patients 75+
      Close to half of all atrial fibrillation associated strokes occur in patients age 75 and older.  
    • The risk of stroke attributable to atrial fibrillation by age
      The risk of stroke attributable to atrial fibrillation increases from 1.5% for those ages 50 to 59 to 23.5% for those ages 80 to 89.  
    • Atrial fibrillation stroke risk
      Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of severe and recurrent ischemic stroke. Patients not treated with anticoagulants have a 2.1-fold increase in risk of recurrent stroke and 2.4-fold increase in…  
    • Atrial fibrillation stroke rates, 1991
      Atrial fibrillation accounts for between 75,000 and 100,000 strokes per year.  
    • Ischemic strokes caused by AFib
      Atrial fibrillation is responsible for at least 15% to 20% of all ischemic strokes.  
    • Risk of ischemic stroke in AFib patients
      The risk of ischemic stroke in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients is 2 to 7 times (200% to 700%) greater than in those without the disease.  
    • Heart failure rates among AFib patients
      A study of Medicare beneficiaries found that those with atrial fibrillation (AF) were significantly more likely to experience heart failure than their non-AF counterparts (36.7% versus 10.4%).  
    • Primary diagnoses for AFib patients
      Heart failure was listed as the primary diagnosis for 11.8% of patients hospitalized with atrial fibrillation (AF). Coronary heart disease was listed for 9.9% of AF patients, and stroke was…  
    • Most common causes of death after AFib diagnosis
      Within the first 4 months of diagnosis of atrial fibrillation, the most common cause of cardiovascular deaths are coronary artery disease (22%), heart failure (14%), and ischemic stroke (10%). After…  
    • Medicare beneficiaries AFib mortality rate
      Of Medicare beneficiaries who receive an atrial fibrillation diagnosis, 1 in 4 will die within a year.  
    • Atrial fibrillation doubles mortality risk
      Atrial fibrillation is associated with an approximate doubling of mortality risk.  
    • Atrial fibrillation as a contributory cause of death
      Around 84% of all deaths with atrial fibrillation as a contributory cause are in individuals age 75 and older.  
    • Atrial fibrillation as a contributory cause of death, 2011
      Atrial fibrillation is a contributory cause of death for around 93,000 Americans each year.  
    • Prevalence of stroke by age and sex (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: 2005-2008)  
    • Thirty-day mortality rates after stroke increase with age—from 9% in Medicare beneficiaries ages 65 to 74, to 13.1% in beneficiaries ages 74 to 84, to 23% in beneficiaries 85 and…  
    • Stroke prevalence increases with age—the rate at ages 85 to 94 is 3.5 times higher than at ages 65 to 74.  
    • Annual incidence of all thromboembolism
      Annual incidence of all thromboembolism, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) alone, and plumonary embolism  (PE) with or without deep vein thrombosis (PE ± DVT) among residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, from…  
    • Incidence of venous thromboembolism increases with age
      Incidence of venous thromboembolism increases significantly with age—from less than 5 cases per 100,000 people ages 15 and younger, to around 500 cases per 100,000 people ages 80 and older.  
    • Prevalence of Diagnosed Atrial Fibrillation Stratified by Age and Sex
      Prevalence of Diagnosed Atrial Fibrillation Stratified by Age and Sex  
    • Lifetime risk of atrial fibrillation
      At age 80, the remaining lifetime risk of atrial fibrillation is around 22%.  
    • AFib rates by age
      Around 82% of Americans with atrial fibrillation are age 65 and older. Around 37% are age 80 and older.  
    • Atrial fibrillation prevalence by age, 2001
      Atrial fibrillation affects around 1 in 25 Americans age 60 and older, increasing to close to 1 in 10 adults by age 80.  
    • Atrial fibrillation prevalence doubles with age
      Atrial fibrillation prevalence doubles with each decade of age—reaching close to 9% by age 80.  
    • Median age AFib patient
      The median age of people with atrial fibrillation is about 75 years.  
    • Around 87% of all strokes are ischemic.  
    • Every 40 seconds, on average, someone in the U.S. has a stroke.  
    • Every year, around 795,000 Americans have a stroke—around 610,000 are first time strokes and 185,000 are recurrent attacks.  
    • An estimated 7,000,000 Americans age 20 and older have had a stroke.  
    • VTE among hospitalized and nursing home residents
      Around 60% of all venous thromboembolism cases are in hospitalized patients and nursing home residents.  
    • VTE incidence, 2003
      Venous thromboembolism occurs for the first time in around 100 per 100,000 people each year.  
    • Venous thromboembolism event incidence
      Around 200,000 of the venous thromboembolism events each year are new cases.  
    • Annual venous thromboembolism events
      More than 900,000 incident or recurrent, fatal and nonfatal, venous thromboembolism events occur each year.  
    • Atrial fibrillation prevalence, 2001
      An estimated 2.66 million Americans currently have atrial fibrillation.  
    • AFib prevalence, 2006
      As much as 1% of the U.S. population is estimated to have atrial fibrillation  
    • Lifetime risk of developing atrial fibrillation for men and women
      The lifetime risk of developing atrial fibrillation is around 1 in 4 for both men and women age 40 and older.  
    • Atrial Fibrillation is Increasingly Prevalent in the United States
      Atrial Fibrillation is Increasingly Prevalent in the United States  
    • Stroke was the third leasing cause of death for those over 65 in 2006 with 297 per 100,000 deaths.  
    • Heart disease was the leading cause of death for those over 65 in 2006 with 1,297 deaths per 100,000.  
    • Between 1981 and 2006, overall death rates among people over 65 dropped 21%, while the rate of deaths due to heart disease decreased by 50%.  
    • The estimated direct and indirect cost of heart failure in the US for 2010 is $39.2 billion.  
    • The estimated 2006 prevalence of heart failure in adults age 20 and older was 5.8 million.  
    • The estimated direct and indirect cost of high blood pressure for 2010 is $76.6 billion.  
    • The prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed hypertension from 1999 to 2002 was 78% for older women and 64% for older men.  
    • The estimated direct and indirect cost of stroke for 2010 is $73.7 billion.  
    • On average, every 4 minutes someone in the US dies of a stroke.  
    • Stroke accounted for about 1 of every 18 deaths in the US in 2006.  
    • On average, every 40 seconds someone in the US has a stroke.  
    • Among American adults age 20 and older, the estimated prevalence of stroke in 2006 was 6.4 million.  
    • The estimated direct and indirect cost of cardiovascular disease for 2010 is $503.2 billion in the US.  
    • In 2005, about 1 in every 6 hospital stays in the US was due to cardiovascular disease.  
    • In 2006, cardiovascular disease was the underlying cause of death for 1 out of every 2.9 deaths in the US.  
    • More than 1 in 3 American adults (81.1 million) have one or more types of cardiovascular disease.  
    • Among Americans 45-64 years of age, heart and circulatory conditions were the second-leading cause of activity limitation.  
    • From 1988-1994 to 2003-2006, the use of statin drugs by Americans 45 years of age and older increased almost 10-fold, from 2% to 22%.  
    • In 2007, poor adults 45-64 years old were 56% more likely than those with family income more than twice the poverty level to have diagnosed hypertension and more than twice…  
    • Death rates from heart disease and stroke are falling in-part because of new drug treatments. According to the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, if death rates were the same…  
    • There are currently 312 medicines in development for heart disease and stroke.  
    • There are 23 medicines in development for stroke, the third leading cause of death after heart disease and cancer.  
    • The prevalence of high blood pressure (hypertension) increases with age. In 2003 – 2006, 36% of men and women age 45 – 54 years had hypertension, compared with 65% of…  
    • 65% of men and 80% of women age 75 years and over either had high blood pressure or were taking antihypertensive medication in 2003 – 2006, compared with about 36%…  
    • 2005 Total Cardiovascular Disease Age-Adjusted Death Rates by State  
    • 2005 Coronary Heart Disease Age-Adjusted Death Rates by State  
    • 2005 Stroke Age-Adjusted Death Rates by State  
    • Adjusted to the U.S. 2000 population, the prevalence of valve disease was 2.5% and the mortality risk ratio associated with the disease was 1.36.  
    • The prevalence of valve disease increases with age, from 0.7% in participants 18-44 to 13.3% in participants 75 years of age or older.  
    • In 2006, $3.9 billion ($7449 per person) was paid to Medicare beneficiaries discharged from short-stay hospitals for stroke.  
    • In 2006, $11.7 billion was paid to Medicare beneficiaries for in-hospital costs when cardiovascular disease was the principal diagnosis.  
    • In 2006, $32.7 billion in program payments were made to Medicare beneficiaries discharged from short-stay hospitals with a principal diagnosis of cardiovascular disease–and average of $10,201 per discharge.  
    • 3.3% of patients admitted to a hospital for cardiovascular disease died in the hospital–significantly higher than the average in-hospital death rate of 2.1%.  
    • In 2004, 24.7% of nursing home residents 65 years of age and older had a primary diagnosis of cardiovascular disease when admitted. This was the highest disease category for these…  
    • Cardiovascular disease ranked highest among all disease categories in hospital discharges in 2005.  
    • The number of inpatient discharges from short-stay hospitals with cardiovascular disease as the first-listed diagnosis increased from about 6,107,000 to 6,161,000 from 1996 to 2006.  
    • In 2009, the estimated direct and indirect cost of stroke is $68.9 billion.  
    • 21% of American men and 24% of women age 40 years of age or older died 1 year after their first stroke in 2005.  
    • In 2009, the estimated direct and indirect cost of cardiovascular disease is $165.4 billion.  
    • Within 1 year after their first myocardial infarction (heart attack): 18% of American men and 23% of women age 40 years of age or older will die.  
    • 16% of American men and 22% of women age 40-69 who have a first myocardial infarction (heart attack) will have a recurrent or fatal occurence of cardiovascular disease within 5…  
    • Americans who survive the acute stage of myocardial infarction have a chance of illness and death 1.5-15 times higher, depending on their sex and clinical outcome, than the general population.  
    • Close to 82% of Americans who die of cardiovascular disease are 65 years of age or older.  
    • In the U.S., the estimated direct and indirect cost of cardiovascular disease for 2009 is $475.3 billion.  
    • In 2005, the total inpatient hospital cost for cardiovascular disease was $71.2 billion, about 1/4 of the total cost of inpatient hospital care in the U.S.  
    • The average annual rates of first cardiovascular events, by age, are as follows: Men: 3 in 1,000 at age 35-44; 74 in 1,000 85-94 Women: comparable rates occur 10 years later in…  
    • Close to 80 million Americans have 1 or more types of cardiovascular disease. Of these, about 38 million are estimated to be 60 years of age or older.  
    • On average, one American has a stroke every 40 seconds.  
    • Preliminary U.S. data show that stroke accounted for 1 of every 18 deaths in 2006.  
    • About 795,000 Americans experience a new or recurrent stroke each year–about 610,000 are first attacks and 185,000 are recurrent.  
    • In 2005, coronary heart disease caused about 1 of 5 deaths in the U.S.  
    • An American will have a coronary event about every 25 seconds. Every minute, someone will die from one.  
    • It is estimated that about 195,000 Americans have a silent myocardial infarction (heart attack) each year.  
    • About 470,000 Americans will have a recurrent coronary attack in 2009.  
    • An estimated 785,000 Americans will have a new coronary attack in 2009.  
    • Close to 2400 Americans die of cardiovascular disease every day–1 death every 37 seconds.  
    • 2006 preliminary data show that cardiovascular disease accounted for 34.2% (1 in 2.9) of all deaths in the U.S. in 2006.  
    • Medicines in Development for Heart Disease and Stroke, 2008  
    • 277 medicines are currently in development to treat or prevent heart disease and stroke.  
    • Depression is approximately 3 times more common in patients who have had an acute myocardial infarction than in the general population.  
    • “Assessments conducted in the hospital indicate that 15% to 20% of patients with myocardial infarction (MI) meet Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for major depression.”  
    • The use of ACE inhibitors in hypertensive patients 80 years of older was associated in this study with a 30% reduction in the rate of stroke and a 64% reduction…  
    • A study looking at the effects of cardiovascular medicines in elderly patients who had previous heart attacks, found a total death rate reduction of 24% between 1995 and 2004.  
    • Heart failure incidence approaches 10 per 1,000 people, after the age of 65.  
    • It is estimated that 37.4% of the US population 20 years of age has prehypertension–including 41.9 million men and 27.8 million women.  
    • 1 in 3 U.S. adults has high blood pressure.  
    • In adults >55 years of age, the lifetime risk for stroke is greater than 1 in 6.  
    • Each year, approximately 60,000 more women than men have a stroke.  
    • Each year, about 780,000 people experience a new or recurrent stroke. About 600,000 of these are first attacks,and 180,000 are recurrent attacks.  
    • On average, every 40 seconds, someone in the United States has a stroke.  
    • Close to 50% of Americans 45 or older have high blood pressure.  
    • It is estimated that 600,000 new myocardial infarction attacks and 320,000 recurrent attacks will occur annually.  
    • In 2005, there were 81,836,000 physician office visits with a primary diagnosis of cardiovascular disease.  
    • Beta-Blocker Treatment After A Heart Attack: Trends, 1996-2006  
    • The rise in beta-blocker treatment rates (34% since 1996) is proof that sustained attention and effective initiatives saves lives and improves quality of life.  
    • In 1996, fewer than 2 in 3 patients were receiving beta-blocker drugs to prevent a second heart attack. In 2006, more than 97% of heart attack patients received these treatments,…  
    • Between 1981 and 2004, death rates for heart disease and stroke declined by about 44%.  
    • Trends in carotid endarterectomy procedures  
    • 2004 total cardiovascular disease age-adjusted death rates by state  
    • Cardiovascular disease mortality trends for males and females (U.S. 1979-2004)  
    • Incidence of cardiovascular disease by age and sex  
    • Cardiovascular disease and other major causes of death for all males and females  
    • Prevalence of stroke by age and sex  
    • Annual rate of first heart attacks by age, sex, and race  
    • From 1979 to 2005, the total number of inpatient cardiovascular operations and procedures increased 484% to 6,989,000 annually.  
    • According to the National Center for Health Statistics, the probability at birth of eventually dying from major cardiovascular disease is 47%.  
    • In 2005, approximately 469,000 coronary artery bypass procedures were performed on 261,000 patients in the U.S.  
    • From 1979 to 2005, the number of cardiac catheterizations increased 342% to 1,322,000 annually.  
    • In 2003, $4.4 billion ($6,577 per discharge) was paid to Medicare beneficiaries for heart failure.  
    • In 2003, $12.2 billion was paid to Medicare beneficiaries for in-hospital costs when cardiovascular disease was the principal diagnosis ($12,321 per discharge for acute myocardial infarction, $11,783 per discharge for…  
    • In 2003, $31.7 billion in payments were made to Medicare beneficiaries discharged from short-stay hospitals with a principal diagnosis of cardiovascular disease–an average of $8,966 per discharge.  
    • The number of ambulatory care visits to physician offices, hospital outpatient departments, and emergency departments for hypertension was 45.3 million for 2001-2002.  
    • In 2005, an estimated 103,000 inpatient endarterectomy procedures were performed in the U.S. Carotid endarterectomy is the most frequently performed surgical procedure to prevent stroke.  
    • The mean lifetime cost of ischemic stroke in the U.S. is an estimated $140,048. This cost includes inpatient care, rehabilitation, and follow-up care.  
    • In 2001, $3.7 billion was paid to Medicare beneficiaries that were discharged from short-stay hospitals for stroke ($6,037 per discharge).  
    • From 1979 to 2005, the number of inpatient discharges from short-stay hospitals with stroke as the first listed diagnosis increased 20%, to 895,000.  
    • 50-70% of stroke survivors regain functional independence. However, 15-30% are permanently disabled and 20% require institutional care at 3 months after onset.  
    • Of those who have a first stroke, within 5 years: 13% of men and 22% of women ages 40-69 have a recurrent stroke; and 23% of men and 28% of…  
    • The median survival time after a first stroke are: at 60-69 years of age–6.8 years for men and 7.4 years for women; at 70-79 years of age–5.4 years for men…  
    • Within 1 year of a first stroke, 21% of men and 24% of women 40 years of age and older, were dead.  
    • Within 5 years of a first stroke, 47% of men and 51% of women 40 years and older, were dead.  
    • Among those ages 45-64, 8-12% of ischemic strokes, and 37-38% of hemorrhagic strokes, result in death within 30 days.  
    • Those who have a transient ischemic attack have a 10-year stroke risk of 18.8% and a combined 10-year stroke, myocardial infarction, or vascular death risk of 42.8%.  
    • The prevalence of transient ischemic attack (a mini-stroke that lasts less than 24 hours) in men is estimated at 2.4% for those ages 65-69, and 3.6% for those ages 75-79.…  
    • The prevalence of silent cerebral infarction in those ages 55-64 is about 11%. Prevalence increases to 22% for those 65-69, 28% for those 70-74, 32% for those 75-79, 40% for…  
    • The percentage of persons with a first myocardial infarction who will have a stroke within 5 years is: 4% of men and 6% of women ages 40-69; and 6% of men…  
    • The percentage of persons with a first myocardial infarction who will have heart failure in 5 years is: 7% of men and 12% of women ages 40-69; and 22% of men…  
    • Of those who have a first myocardial infarction, 16% of men and 22% of women ages 40-69 have a recurrent myocardial infarction or fatal coronary heart disease within 5 years.  
    • People who survive the acute stage of a myocardial infarction have a chance of illness and death that is 1.5 to 15 times higher than the general population.  
    • People who have a myocardial infarction have a sudden death rate that is 4 to 6 times higher than the general population.  
    • Within 5 years of a first myocardial infarction, of those age 40 and older, 33% of men and 43% of women will die.  
    • Within one year of a first myocardial infarction 18% of men and 23% of women, 40 years and older, will die.  
    • On average, myocardial infarction causes an estimated 15 years of lost life.  
    • Around 83% of people who die from coronary heart disease are 65 years or older.  
    • Coronary heart disease was the cause of 1 out of 5 deaths in the U.S. in 2004.  
    • The lifetime risk of developing coronary heart disease after 40 years of age is 49% for men and 32% for women.  
    • In 2005, an estimated 6,989,000 inpatient cardiovascular operations and procedures were performed in the U.S.; 4.1 million were performed on males, and 2.9 million were performed on females.  
    • In 2005, the total inpatient hospital cost for cardiovascular disease was $71.2 billion, approximately 1/4 of the total cost of hospital care in the U.S.  
    • In 2005, cardiovascular disease ranked highest among all disease categories in hospital discharges.  
    • In 1999, 23% of nursing home residents 65 and older had a primary diagnosis of cardiovascular disease at admission.  
    • From 1979 to 2005, the number of inpatient discharges from short-stay hospitals with cardiovascular disease as the first-listed diagnosis increased 26% to 6,159,000 discharges. In 2005, cardiovascular disease ranked highest…  
    • The annual incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in the U.S. is 0.55/1,000 people–around 166,200.  
    • Every year, cardiovascular disease claims more lives than cancer, chronic lower respiratory diseases, accidents, and diabetes mellitus combined.  
    • Every year since 1900 (except 1918), cardiovascular disease accounted for more deaths than any other single or group of causes of death in the United States.  
    • The average annual rates of first cardiovascular events rise from 3 per 1000 men at 35 to 44 years of age to 74 per 1000 men at 85 to 94…  
    • An estimated 5.3 million American adults have heart failure.  
    • An estimated 16 million American adults have coronary heart disease.  
    • An estimated 73 million adult Americans have high blood pressure.  
    • According to the National Center for Health Statistics, if all major forms of cardiovascular disease were eliminated, life expectancy would rise by close to 7 years.  
    • In 2005, 2,125 heart transplantations were performed in the U.S.  
    • Hospital discharges for heart failure rose from 400,000 in 1979 to 1,084,000 in 2005–an increase of 171%.  
    • An estimated 80.7 million American adults (1 in 3) have 1 or more types of cardiovascular disease. Of these, 38.2 million are estimated to be 60 years of age or…  
    • An estimated 5,600,000 American adults have had a stroke.  
    • In 2004, stroke accounted for around 1 in 16 deaths in the U.S.  
    • The lifetime risk of developing congestive heart failure for men and women at age 40, is 1 in 5.  
    • When considered separately from cardiovascular disease, stroke is the 3rd leading cause of death in the U.S.  
    • Stroke is the leading cause of serious, long-term disability in the U.S.  
    • The lifetime risk of developing coronary heart disease after the age of 40 is 49% for men, and 32% for women.  
    • Approximately 1 in 3 adults has high blood pressure (HBP) which, if not properly diagnosed and treated, can lead to heart failure, heart attack, stroke, blindness, and kidney disease.  
    • Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including heart attack and stroke, remains the nation’s No. 1 killer of men and women, causing more than 36% of all deaths.  
    • In 2004, estimates of procedures performed for U.S. patients were: 1,285,000 inpatient angioplasty procedures; 427,000 inpatient bypass procedures; 1,471,000 inpatient diagnostic cardiac catheterizations; 68,000 inpatient implantable defibrillators; and 170,000 pacemaker…  
    • If all forms of cardiovascular disease were eliminated, life expectancy would rise by close to 7 years.  
    • In adults over 55 years, the lifetime risk of stroke is greater than 1 in 6.  
    • In 2004, stroke accounted for approximately 1 out of every 16 deaths in the U.S. Approximately 54% of stroke deaths in 2004 occurred out of the hospital.  
    • Total hospital costs (inpatients, outpatients, and emergency department patients) projected for the year 2008 are estimated to be $140.1 billion. Cardiovascular disease costs more than any other diagnostic group.  
    • The total direct and indirect cost of CVD and stroke in the United States for 2008 is estimated at $448.5 billion. This figure includes health expenditures (direct costs, which include…  
    • Heart failure incidence approaches 10 per 1,000 of the U.S. population after 65 years of age.  
    • The estimated direct and indirect cost of heart failure in the U.S. for 2008 is $34.8 billion.  
    • The estimated direct and indirect cost of stroke for 2008 is $65.5 billion.  
    • The length of time to recover from a stroke depends on its severity. From 50% to 70% of stroke survivors regain functional independence, but 15% to 30% are permanently disabled,…  
    • Approximately 780,000 Americans each year experience a new or recurrent stroke. About 600,000 of these are first attacks, and 180,000 are recurrent attacks,  
    • In 2005, an estimated 1,271,000 inpatient angioplasty procedures, 469,000 inpatient bypass procedures, 1,322,000 inpatient diagnostic cardiac catheterizations, 91,000 inpatient implantable defibrillators, and 180,000 pacemaker procedures were performed for inpatients in the…  
    • The estimated direct and indirect cost of coronary heart disease for 2008 is $156.4 billion.  
    • For nonspecific chest pain, about 54.4% of hospital stays were for women 45 to 64 years of age. Women constituted 73.9% of nonspecific chest pain stays among patients 85 years of…  
    • For coronary atherosclerosis, 32.7% of hospital stays were for women among people 45 to 64 years of age; this figure increased to 60.7% of stays among those 85 years of…  
    • For myocardial infarction, 28.4% of hospital stays for people 45 to 64 years of age were for women, but 63.7% of stays for those 85 years of age were for…  
    • From 1979 to 2005, the number of inpatient discharges from short-stay hospitals with coronary heart disease as the first-listed diagnosis increased 5% to 1.8 million.  
    • The estimated direct and indirect cost of cardiovascular disease for 2008 is $448.5 billion.  
    • Between 1988 & 1994 and 1999 & 2004, use of pharmacological lipid-lowering treatment increased from 11.7% to 40.8%. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol control increased from 4.0% to 25.1% among those with high…  
    • In 2004, 1 in 8 death certificates (284,365 deaths) in the U.S. mentions heart failure.  
    • Preliminary data from 2005 indicate that stroke accounted for about 1 of every 17 deaths in the U.S. On average, every 40 seconds someone in the U.S. has a stroke.…  
    • About every 26 seconds, an American will have a coronary event, and about every minute someone will die from one.  
    • It is estimated that an additional 175,000 silent first myocardial infarctions occur each year.  
    • In 2008, an estimated 770,000 Americans will have a new coronary attack, and about 430,000 will have a recurrent attack.  
    • Coronary heart disease caused 1 of every 5 deaths in the United States in 2004. Coronary heart disease mortality was 451,326.  
    • In 2004, 32% of deaths from cardiovascular disease occurred before the age of 75 years, which is well before the average life expectancy of 77.9 years.  
    • Close to 2,400 Americans die of cardiovascular disease each day–an average of 1 death every 37 seconds.  
    • Preliminary mortality data from 2005 shows that cardiovascular disease accounted for 35.2% (861,826) of all deaths in 2005, or 1 of every 2.8 deaths in the US.  
    • From 1994 to 2004, death rates from cardiovascular disease declined 24.7%.  
    • In 2004, the overall death rate from cardiovascular disease was 288 per 100,000.  
    • About 1/2 of the decrease in recent deaths in cardiovascular disease can be attributed to medical treatment.  
    • Following the current path, stroke cases will increase by 28.9% between 2003 and 2023 (estimates do not include strokes among the institutionalized population). If an alternative path is taken, there…  
    • Following the current path, heart disease cases will increase by 41.1% between 2003 and 2023.  
    • Following the current path, heart disease cases will increase by 41.1% between 2003 and 2023. If an alternative path is taken, there will be 34.6% (9.4 million) fewer heart disease…  
    • Following the current path, pulmonary condition cases will increase by 31.3% between 2003 and 2023.  
    • Following the current path, pulmonary condition cases will increase by 31.3% between 2003 and 2023. If an alternative path is taken, there will be 9.1% fewer pulmonary condition cases.  
    • Antihypertensive therapy has been associated in clinical trials with a 1/3 reduction in stroke incidence, a 1/4 reduction in myocardical infarctions and a more than 1/2 reduction in heart failure.  
    • High blood pressure decreases the life expectancy of men by 5.1 years and women by 4.9 years.  
    • Close to 1/3 of American adults with high blood pressure do not know they have it, which increases the risk of related complications and other diseases.  
    • Hypertension doubles a person’s risk of stroke.  
    • Using beta-blockers after a heart attack decreases the likelihood of a recurrent attack and other cardiovascular mortality, which increases the probability of long-term survival by up to 40%.  
    • 1/2 of those who survive a heart attack are readmitted to the hospital within 1 year of the event.  
    • Hospitalization from incorrect diagnosis of heart attacks costs $12 billion per year. If creatine kinase, myoglobin and troponin are used for detecting heart attack in ER patients with chest pain,…  
    • Using medical imaging to diagnose and treat stroke leads to better outcomes and shorter hospital stays, which yields a net economic benefit of about $8 billion over 10 years.  
    • Antihypertensive treatment has generated a benefit-to-cost ratio of at least 6:1 (6:1 in women and 10:1 in men).  
    • A personal history of cardiovascular disease was found to raise an individuals risk of Alzheimer’s disease by 30%, compared with those without such a history.  
    • Percentage Change in Age-Adjusted Death Rates From Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) And Other Causes Since 1950, United States, 1950-2002  
    • From 1970-2000, gains in longevity were greatest for people between the ages of 40 and 60, and greater for men than women, in large part because of advances in the…  
    • Since 1970, reduced mortality from heart disease has increased the value of life by about $1.5 trillion per year. The value of improvements in health care over the 20th century…  
    • According to the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, 146 new medicines are being developed for heart disease and stroke. They include 17 for stroke, 16 for congestive heart failure,…  
    • According to the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, 13 medicines are currently in development for stroke.  
    • The recent NHLBI (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute)-supported Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial, the largest clinical trial designed to study drug treatments for HBP, revealed…  
    • Hypertension and heart failure are the 2 most common cardiovascular reasons for physician visits in older adults. Heart failure is a major cause of chronic disability, inability to exercise, decreased…  
    • Results from the Framingham study showed a 3 to 4-fold risk of coronary artery disease in patients ages 65-94 with elevated systolic pressures, compared to those with lower systolic pressures.  
    • The most common cause of hospitalization and rehospitalization in Americans age 65 and older is congestive heart failure.  
    • Coronary artery disease is the most common cause of death in Americans age 65 and older.  
    • Eliminating out-of-pocket drug costs for combination pharmacotherapy for the 423,000 Americans with drug insurance who will experience their first myocardial infarction in 2006 would save 4,736 lives, and would save…  
    • Full medication coverage is expected to increase patient compliance from 50% to 76%. Expanded coverage would cost insurers an average of $644 more per patient, but would avert an average…  
    • From 1996 to 2004, the number of cardiac surgeries per 1,000 Medicare beneficiaries grew 22%, and growth is expected to continue.  
    • “Coronary heart disease spending has increased more than 40% over the past 15 years, and, as a whole, the health improvements have been well worth the costs. Over the entire…  
    • Data from clinical trials demostrate that ICDs reduce sudden cardiac death 5-10% per year for 2-3 years, compared to antiarrhythmic drugs.  
    • About 250,000 Americans each year have an automatic intracardiac defibrillator implanted, at the cost of about $100,000 each.  
    • From 2001-2004, 69% of men and 82% of women age 75 and older had hypertension.  
    • 5 years of treatment with beta-blockers for heart failure increases patient survival by about 3 1/2 months and patients had fewer overnight hospital stays.  
    • The development of antioxidants that reduce oxidative damage is underway. One antioxidant that has been found, uric acid, has an even greater protective effect when combined with tPA.  
    • In the 1980s, approximately 400,000 major infarctions were occurring each year in the U.S. and 40% of patients were dying within the first year. 1-year mortality is now 4-8%.  
    • Every year, around 250,000 Americans have an automatic intracardiac defibrillator (ICD) implanted. Data from clinical trials that compares ICDs to antiarrhythmic drugs show that the ICDs reduce sudden cardiac death…  
    • While treatment with antihypertensives has already generated a benefit-to-cost ratio of at least 6:1 (6:1 for women and 10:1 for men), more effective use of antihypertensive medication would have an…  
    • Heart disease is the #1 most costly medical condition in the U.S. Hypertension is #5 and cerebrovascular disease is #7.  
    • “Although high cholesterol was recognized as a key risk factor for cardiovascular disease in the 1970s, there were no good ways to reduce it. The best drug available was…  
    • The prognosis for patients with heart failure is worse than with most forms of cancer, and median survival rates are less than 5 years.  
    • About 90% of women who have normal blood pressure at the age of 65 will develop hypertension by age 85.  
    • More than 75% of women over 75 have hypertension.  
    • Among adults 45 and older, between 2002 and 2003 there were over 1/2 a million hospital discharges with at least 1 coronary stent insertion procedure performed.  
    • Every additional dollar spent on antiplatelet therapy versus aspirin for the prevention of stroke in high-risk patients, has produced health gains valued between $2 and $6.  
    • Use of ACE inhibitor drugs for people with congestive heart failure helped avoid $9,000 per person in hospital costs over a 3-year period and reduced deaths by 16%.  
    • Performing renal angioplasty to unclog arteries costs $6,000 less than performing a surgical bypass operation. When post-procedure costs are factored in, it costs $14,000 less. The performance of renal angioplasty…  
    • Between 1984 and 1998, the cost of treating heart attack patients rose $10,000. However, medical technology increased the life expectancy of heart attack patients by an average of 1 year-a…  
    • Ischemic stroke patients treated with t-PA (a drug used to treat blood clots) within 3 hours of onset are 33% more likely to be free of disability 3 months after…  
    • About 70% of the survival improvement in heart attack mortality resulted from changes in technology.  
    • Since 1950, reduction in heart disease mortality has added more than 3 1/2 years to the expected lifetimes of both men and women.  
    • Mortality rates in the first 3 months after a heart attack have fallen by about 75%.  
    • Increased use of non-acute medications in primary and secondary prevention explains about 1/3 of the total reduction in cardiovascular disease mortality since 1950.  
    • About 2/3 of reduced mortality from cardiovascular disease is a result of medical interventions.  
    • A study of ischemic stroke survivors who were at least 65-years-old found that at 6 months post-stroke 50% had some one-sided paralysis, 30% were unable to walk without some assistance,…  
    • Only 2.7% of 65-year-olds who have experienced a stroke are free of comorbidities and physical limitations–66.4% have 3 or more.  
    • 20% of stroke survivors require institutional care within 3 months after onset and 15% to 30% are permanently disabled.  
    • 71.5% of 65-year-olds with coronary heart disease have 3 or more comorbidities and physical limitations–only 3.8% have none.  
    • 10 million Americans are disabled as a result of stroke and heart disease.  
    • An estimated 70% of survival improvement in heart attack mortality is attributed to technological advances and procedures developed over the past 30 years, including CABG (coronary artery bypass graft), PTCA…  
    • In 2000, the American College of Cardiology estimated that by 2050, the population of Americans with the diagnosis of heart disease will double the current number of 12.5 million, because…  
    • Total Deaths And Age-Adjusted Death Rates (Per 100,000 Population) For The Fifteen Leading Causes Of Death In The Total U.S. Population, 2003  
    • Assuming that Medicare Part D covers about 37% of beneficiaries’ drug costs, it is estimated that providing post-myocardial infarction Medicare beneficiaries with full coverage for combination pharmcotherapy will save more…  
    • Aspirin, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and statins, when taken in combination, have been estimated to reduce the relative risk of coronary heart disease mortality by 80%, compared with a placebo.  
    • Compared to standard coverage, 3 years of full coverage for prevention medications will reduce mortality and reinfarction rates and will save $5,974 per patient.  
    • Medicare data show that the number of coronary artery bypass graft procedures increased from 158,000 in 1992 to a peak of 190,000 in 1996 and then fell to 152,000 in…  
    • In 2000-2002, for a person without coronary heart disease, hypertension added $1,600 to annual spending and diabetes added $3,600. In patients with coronary heart disease, hypertension added an additional $1,900…  
    • The greater use of medications and revascularization would provide approximately a 17% reduction in 2 year mortality combined.  
    • Compared to predicted levels in the absence of drug therapy, there were 9% fewer deaths from major cardiovascular disease in 2001 and 38% and 25% fewer hospital discharges for stroke…  
    • It is estimated that the number of quality-adjusted life-years achieved with each $1 million spent on antihypertensive drug therapy is between 20-50 to more than 200.  
    • A calculated approximate benefit-to-cost ratio for antihypertensive therapy is 10:1 for men and 6:1 for women.  
    • If all untreated patients with Stage I or II hypertension had been treated and achieved normal blood pressures, there would have been 420,000 fewer hospital discharges in 2002 than actually…  
    • Without antihypertensive drug therapy, there would have been about 572,000 more hospital discharges for stroke in 2002 and 261,000 more discharges for myocardial infarction.  
    • In 2001, 86,000 more premature deaths from cardiovascular disease (50,000 men and 36,000 women) would have occurred among Americans age 40 and older without antihypertensive drug therapy.  
    • From 1999-2000, average blood pressures for Americans age 40 and older would have been 10-13% higher without antihypertensive drug therapy.  
    • Cardiovascular disease mortality has declined by over 50% since 1950, contributing more than any other factor to the increase of life expectancy during the past few decades.  
    • The total economic burden of coronary heart disease is $120.6 billion; of stroke is $48.9 billion.  
    • Lifetime risk of developing hypertension is estimated at 90% for people with normal blood pressures at age 55 or 65 and who live to age 80 to 85, respectively.  
    • Treatment for hypertension using antihypertensive therapy has generated a benefit-to-cost ratio of at least 6:1.  
    • Antihypertensive therapy has had a major impact on health. Without it, 1999-2000 average blood pressures (at age 40 or over) would have been 10-13% higher, and 86,000 more premature deaths…  
    • The annual medical cost of cardiovascular disease is $403.1 billion.  
    • Major cardiovascular event rates could be reduced by 80% simply by acting on known risk factors with therapies already shown to be effective.  
    • Several prevention/early detection interventions for cardiovascular disease have cost-effectiveness ratios of $50,000-$70,000 per life saved.  
    • Because of the advent of imaging and noninvasive testing, Americans who are asymptomatic are being diagnosed with established cardiovascular disease.  
    • From 1979 to 2003, total inpatient operations and procedures for cardiovascular disease increased 470%, and the number of cardiac catherizations alone increased 373%.  
    • The proportion of adults with no self-reported cardiovascular disease risk factors declined from 42% in 1991 to 36% in 2001.  
    • “Cardiovascular disease is the most costly disease in the United States.”  
    • In 2003, there were about 70.7 million outpatient physician office visits and 4.5 million emergency department admissions with a primary diagnosis of cardiovascular disease.  
    • Close to 45% of deaths from cardiovascular disease are caused by ischemic or coronary heart disease.  
    • Heart disease and stroke caused more deaths in 2003 than the other 15 leading causes of death combined, not including cancer.  
    • “Among the 71.3 million adults with one or more forms of cardiovascular disease, the most prevalent conditions are hypertension or high blood pressure (65 million), coronary heart disease (13.2 million),…  
    • Cardiovascular disease caused 34.4% of the 2.4 million deaths in the U.S in 2003.  
    • Approximately 350,000 sudden cardiac deaths occur in the United States each year.  
    • “Both echocardiography and nuclear imaging are used for provocative “stress” testing of the heart. When combined with exercise or other forms of stress such as administering inotropic or vasodilating drugs,…  
    • In 2006, cardiovascular disease cost the U.S. close to $400 billion in direct and indirect costs.  
    • The leading cause of death in 2004 for Americans age 65 and older was heart disease.  
    • Antihypertensive Medicines Have Prevented Deaths and Hospitalizations: Study quantified impact of high blood pressure drugs on the U.S. population 1999-2000  
    • Increased Use of Medicines Reduces Risk of Death After Major Cardiovascular Events: Disease management program increased use of medicines  
    • Patients Taking Medicines for Heart Failure Incur Lower Health Care Costs: Beta-blockers reduce total treatment costs for heart failure by $3,959  
    • Medicines Produce Valuable Health Gains for Heart Attack Patients  
    • Heart Failure Disease Management (DM) Program Reduces Hospitalizations and Overall Costs  
    • Increased use of a blood-thinning drug prevents 40,000 strokes every year in the U.S.  
    • Increased use of a blood-thinning drug saves $600 million annually, because of the strokes it prevents.  
    • New approaches are under development to reduce ischemic stroke damage and other damage occuring because of stroke.  
    • A major objective is to control blood pressure and preempt primary and secondary stroke. Assessing specific antihypertensive therapies will identify specific treatments that will lower blood pressure.  
    • A recent data analysis of more than 2,700 stroke patients from the U.S. and Europe confirmed tPA’s effectiveness, which could save the U.S. nearly $50 million a year.  
    • In 1995, an NIH-funded clinical trial established the first FDA-approved treatment for acute ischemic stroke treatment.The drug tPA, if given within 3 hours of stroke symptoms, reduces the risk of…  
    • 5.5 million Americans have survived a stroke, but live with its impact every day.  
    • The age-adjusted stroke mortality rate has decreased 70% since 1950, and 64% since 1972.  
    • 2/3 of women who have a heart attack do not fully recover.  
    • 23% of women will die within 1 year after having a heart attack.””  
    • 1 in 4 American women will die of heart disease.  
    • Reductions in early deaths due to cardiovascular disease are keeping people productive longer and avoiding $2.6 trillion per year in lost productivity, says Elias Zerhouni, Director of the NIH.  
    • Echocardiography and nuclear imaging are used for provocative “stress” testing of the heart. When combined with other forms of stress, both can identify the presence of coronary artery-obstructing lesions that…  
    • Use of beta blockers to treat high blood pressure in congestive heart failure patients reduced death rates by 35%.  
    • Atrial fibrillation ablation prevents recurrence of AFib
      Atrial fibrillation ablation, which involves using a catheter inserted into the heart to destroy electrical conduction tissue in or near the atria, prevents the recurrence of atrial fibrillation in up…  
    • Over 1 million angioplasty-stent procedures are estimated to be performed each year in the U.S.  
    • Over the past 15 years, three classes of drugs have reduced mortality and improved symptoms of heart failure in patients who have decreased heart muscle function. These classes of drugs…  
    • Through advances in risk-factor assessment, detection, and preventive strategies, the average age of acute myocardial infarction and heart failure patients has shifted around 10 to 15 years forward. One-year…  
    • Atrial fibrillation prevalence, 2007
      An estimated 2.2 million Americans have atrial fibrillation and most are over the age of 65.  
    • “Increasing life expectancy in western society is a result of two major success stories in the prevention and treatment of human disease. The first milestone was eliminating the scourge of…  
    • “Over the past thirty-five years, U.S. age-adjusted mortality from cardiovascular disease declined 50 percent. This marked reduction reflects advances in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of common cardiovascular conditions.”  
    • “…CVD has held the rank of number-one killer in the United States every year since 1900 (except for 1918, thanks to pandemic flu) and now hold the title ‘world’s greatest…  
    • Use of antihypertensive therapies avoided an estimated $10.7 billion in 2002 direct medical costs as a result of fewer strokes. They also avoided an estimated $5.8 billion in 2002…  
    • In the absence of antihypertensive drug therapy, there would have been an estimated 572,000 more hospital discharges for stroke in 2002, and 261,000 more discharges for myocardial infarction. The…  
    • If antihypertensive medication were widely used, it would result in an estimated increase in life expectancy (averaged over the entire population) of 0.5 years in men and 0.4 years in…  
    • Without antihypertensive therapies, blood pressures (at age 40+) would have been between 10% and 13% higher in 1999-2000. Additionally, 86,000 excess premature deaths from cardiovascular disease would have occurred in…  
    • Of those Americans 75 and older, 68.4% of men and 82.8% of women have high blood pressure.  
    • Death rates from stroke have decreased from 180.7 per 100,000 persons in 1950, to 56.2 per 100,000 persons in 2002.  
    • Death rates from heart disease have decreased from 586.6 deaths per 100,000 persons in 1950, to 240.8 deaths per 100,000 persons in 2002.  
    • Between 2002 and 2003, heart or other circulatory conditions caused activity limitations for 101.9 of every 1,000 people between the ages of 65 and 74; for 162.6 of every 1,000…  
    • The percentage of Americans age 55-64 with high cholesterol decreased between 1988-94 and 1999-2002, in part because of the increased awareness about the risks of high cholesterol and the increased…  
    • According to Elias Zerhouni, Director of the NIH, cardiovascular disease death rates have dropped 63% over the past 30 years because of NIH research – at a cost of $2.70…  
    • According to Elias Zerhouni, Director of NIH, there are now 1 million fewer “early deaths” from cardiovascular disease than there were 30 years ago, thanks to NIH findings.  
    • Death Rates for Coronary Heart Disease, 1950-1998  
    • The projected economic value of eliminating deaths from stroke is $7.6 trillion.  
    • Greater use of clot-busting drug t-PA in ischemic stroke patients could save the health care system over $100 million a year.  
    • Treating acute stroke with drugs that minimize cell death could result in a median decrease in disability of 30%. Treatment with stem cell transplants could result in a median decrease…  
    • Development of a neuroprotective drug could potentially reduce disability from stroke by 50%.  
    • Effectiveness of pacemaker/defibrillators to control AFib
      Widespread use of pacemaker/defibrillators to control atrial fibrillation could result in a 50% decrease in stroke.  
    • The projected economic value of eliminating deaths from heart disease is approximately $48 trillion.  
    • Initiating and continuing beta-blocker use in most first-time heart attack survivors for 20 years would result in 72,000 fewer coronary heart disease deaths, 62,000 fewer heart attacks, and 447,000 gained…  
    • Every additional dollar spent on the overall treatment of stroke has produced health gains valued at $1.55.  
    • Development and widespread use of left ventricular assist devices could result in a 50% decrease in heart failure-related hospitalizations.  
    • Spending $1,000 per year on anticoagulants can save $100,000 in hospital costs for care of a person disabled by a stroke.  
    • A year-long study of patients with congestive heart failure found that increased use of medicines increased pharmaceutical costs by 60%; however, hospital costs declined by 78%, producing a net savings…  
    • According to the National Institutes of Health, use of the clot-busting drug t-PA saves $4,400 per patient in hospitalization and nursing home costs.  
    • Every additional dollar spent on the routine use of beta-blockers (versus under-use) in acute heart attack patients has produced health gains valued as high as $38.44.  
    • Every $1 spent on technological innovations in heart attack care has produced an estimated $7 gain.  
    • During the 1970s and 1980s, the gains associated with the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease totaled $31 trillion.  
    • For every dollar spent on cardiovascular medical treatments, a return of $4 is realized.  
    • Because of reduced mortality rates, the number of stroke survivors who are non-institutionalized increased from 2.0 to 2.4 million between 1980 and 1991.  
    • Between 1980 and 2000, stroke mortality rates fell from 96.2 to 60.8 per 100,000 persons.  
    • A blood thinning drug was found to reduce the risk of heart attack, stroke, and cardiovascular disease by 20% in patients with acute coronary syndrome when given in addition to…  
    • Statin treatment soon after an acute heart attack reduces the risk of fatal heart disease or a recurrent heart attack by 24%.  
    • Primary angioplasty reduces 30-day mortality risk by 34% to 50%.  
    • Glycoprotein inhibitors have been shown to reduce the risk of death, a second heart attack, or the need for revascularization by 48% to 52% in patients who have suffered a…  
    • “Sherri Selph was 41 when she was first diagnosed with second-stage congestive heart failure. However, her rapidly diminishing health led to a diagnosis of end-stage heart disease. A heart transplant…  
    • Coronary artery disease accounts for 51% of all heart disease, and if no preventative drugs are made available, is projected to cost the nation $75.8 billion by 2025, up from…  
    • A recent study demonstrated that the cost of treating cardiovascular disease could rise by 64% to 84% by 2025.  
    • Between 2010 and 2030, the number of survivors of heart disease is expected to grow at a much faster rate than the U.S. population as a whole.  
    • The average cost of care for a patient up to 90 days post-stroke is $15,000.  
    • The conditions and disabilities associated with stroke cost the United States between $30 billion and $40 billion a year.  
    • Approximately 66% of heart attack patients do not make a complete recovery.  
    • More than 6 million hospitalizations a year are due to cardiovascular disease.  
    • 65% of Americans will have some form of cardiovascular disease by retirement age.  
    • 2.6% of all Americans have suffered a heart attack at some point in their lives.