Cancer  /  Innovative Medical Research

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    • Imatinib, the first chemical agent to target a cancer-specific protein, improved 5-year survival rates for chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) from 17% in the mid-1970s to 63% in 2007.  
    • Decline in Cancer Death Rates in Men
       
    • Improvement in 5-Year Survival Rates for All Cancers Since 1975
       
    • FDA Cancer Approvals for Aug 2014 to July 2015
       
    • FDA approved cancer advances
       
    • Thousands of potential cancer medicines in development
       
    • Gains in healthy years of life and social value from cancer R&D
       
    • New cancer treatments account for large percent of life expectancy gains
       
    • Increase in 5-year survival rate for cancer
       
    • 5-Year Relative Survival Rates for Cancers in U.S.  
    • Cancer Survivors in the United States  
    • The Impact of Personalized Medicine on Cancer Survival in Years  
    • Estimated Number of Cancer Survivors in the United States From 1975 to 2012  
    • Since Congress passed the National Cancer Act in 1971, the percentage of the U.S. population living with, through, or beyond a cancer diagnosis has more than tripled.  
    • There are nearly 14.5 million people in the U.S. living with a history of cancer.  
    • The 5-year survival rate for cancer has gone up 40 percent in the last 40 years.  
    • Since 1991 the cancer death rate has fallen by 20 percent.  
    • Reductions in mortality for lung, female breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers accounted for 60 to 80 percent of the total decrease in all cancer deaths since the early 1990s.  
    • Since 1980, 83 percent of gains in life expectancy for cancer patients have been attributable to new treatments.  
    • From 1975 to 1996, new cancer drugs increased life expectancy of cancer patients by about one year, at an estimated cost of $3,000—well below the estimated value of a statistical…  
    • The increase in the stock of cancer drugs from 1975 to 1995 accounted for about 50 to 60 percent of the increase in age-adjusted survival rates in the first 6…  
    • Between 1990/1991 and 2008, the overall cancer mortality rates decreased by 22.9 percent in men and 15.3 percent in women—around 1,024,400 deaths avoided—primarily due to reductions in tobacco use among…  
    • Investments in cancer research and development between 1998 and 2000 has generated 23 million additional healthy years of life and $1.9 trillion of additional social value.  
    • Since 1975, the five year survival rate for breast cancer patients has increased by 40 percent.  
    • The overall five-year survival rate for women with invasive breast cancer is now 89 percent.  
    • Without screening and adjuvant therapy, the death rate for breast cancer would have increased by about 30 percent between 1975 and 2000.  
    • Use of a monocolonal antibody with adjuvant chemotherapy in HER2+ individuals with operable cancer was associated with a 33 percent reduction in risk of death.  
    • From 2007 to 2011, lung cancer incidence rates decreased by three percent each year in men and 2.2 percent each year in women.  
    • Improvements in surgical techniques and combination therapies increased the 1-year survival rate for lung cancer from 34 percent in 1975-1977 to 45 percent in 2006-2009.  
    • After one year, 73 percent of non-small-cell lung cancer patients with the EGFR genetic mutation who were treated with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor had survived, compared to 15 percent who…  
    • The overall five-year survival rate for men with prostate cancer is 99 percent—up from 43 percent in 1975.  
    • The standard treatment for prostate cancer used to require radical prostatectomy. Now, less invasive therapies like brachytherapy have been shown to have equal outcomes with fewer side effects.  
    • A prostate cancer vaccine, sipleucel-T immunotherapy, in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, reduced the risk of death by 22 percent compared to placebo, and represented a 4.2 month improvement in…  
    • Survival rates for colon cancer went from 41 percent to 63 percent between 1975 and 1995.  
    • Use of an epidermal growth factor inhibitor in the treatment of metastatic colon cancer patients without the KRAS gene mutation saw survival rates of 15.6 months, compared to 5.6 months…  
    • Investments in cancer care generated $598 billion of additional value for cancer patients diagnosed between 1983 and 1999.  
    • Cancer patients in the U.S. experience greater survival gains than those in European countries, and the value of additional gains exceeds the additional cost of care in the U.S.  
    • Investments in research since the 1970s have generated $1.9 trillion of value to society overall.  
    • Between 2008 and 2010, use of colonoscopy for the treatment and prevention of colon cancer saved an average of $150,364 each year, per person affected.  
    • Over the next 10 years, the number of cancer survivors in the U.S. is predicted to grow from 14.5 million to nearly 19 million (9.3 million men and 9.6 million…  
    • Close to one third of all drugs currently in the biopharmaceutical pipeline are for cancer, with around 5,500 potential first-in-class cancer medicines in development.  
    • As of July 2014, 18 anticancer drugs received FDA approval after being designated breakthrough therapies.  
    • Between August 2004 and July 2014, the FDA approved: Six new anticancer therapeutics Five new uses for previously approved anticancer therapeutics Two new uses for imaging agents One new use for a screening test  
    • A one percent reduction in cancer-related deaths in the U.S. would be worth an estimated $500 billion to society from increased quality of life and increased productivity from longer lives.  
    • A 10 percent reduction in cancer-related deaths in the U.S. would be worth an estimated $4.4 trillion to current and future generations.  
    • A one percent reduction in lung, colorectal, breast, leukemia, pancreatic, and brain cancer mortality would reduce productivity costs by $814 million per year.  
    • More than half of cancer deaths in the U.S. are due to preventable causes.  
    • Increased use of medical technology, like colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy for colon cancer screening, could save $178.2 billion between 2010 and 2035.  
    • Pathogens cause around two million cancer cases worldwide each year. Ninety percent of these cases are attributable to Helicobacter pylori (H Pylori), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV),…  
    • If the use of recommended colorectal screening increased to 70.5 percent, 1,000 additional lives could be saved each year.  
    • In 1971, one in 69 people was a cancer survivor (three million survivors). In 2014, that number grew to one in 22 people (14.5 million survivors).  
    • Chemotherapy drugs now target specific genomic abnormalities, about 150 effective drugs are available for cancer therapy, and new surgical techniques minimize negative consequences while producing better results.   
    • Baseline lung cancer screening would lead to more than 130,000 additional survivors in 2012.  
    • Approximately one third of men diagnosed with prostate cancer will opt for surgical treatment.  
    • Drugs like bevacizumab- designed to impede the growth of blood vessels and tumors- can cost more than $100,000 per patient.   
    • The use of imatinib (Gleevec) has increased the eight-year survival rate for early chronic-phase myelogenous leukemia from 65% to 84%.  
    • Medicines in Devlopment for Cancer, 2008  
    • 750 cancer-fighting medicines are currently in development.  
    • Mortality rates for colorectal cancer have declined over the past 2 decades and have had a steeper decline in the most recent time period (1.8% per year from 1985-2002 compared…  
    • Death rates from breast cancer have steadily decreased in women since 1990. This decrease represents progress in both early detection and improved treatment.  
    • The 5-year survival rate for all cancers diagnosed from 1996-2003 is 66%, up from 50% in 1975-1977. This improvement reflects progress in early diagnosis and improvements in treatment.  
    • Colorectal Cancer Screening: Trends, 2003-2006  
    • Percentage of women age 50 and over who had a mammogram in the past 2 years, by age group, selected years 1987-2005  
    • “Among women age 65 and over, the percentage who had a mammogram within the preceding 2 years almost tripled from 23% in 1987 to 64% in 2005.”  
    • Following the current path, the colon cancer incidence rate will increase by 31.8% between 2003 and 2023 (447,000 people). If an alternative path is taken, there will be 17.7% (79,000…  
    • Following the current path, the lung cancer incidence rate will increase by 34% between 2003 and 2023. If an alternative path is taken, there will be 18.4% (92,000) fewer lung…  
    • Following the current path, the prostate cancer incidence rate will increase by 75.4% (786,000) between 2003 and 2023. If an alternative path is taken, there will be 21.5% (393,000) fewer…  
    • Following the current path, breast cancer incidence rate will increase by 50.8% between 2003 and 2023. If an alternative path is taken, cases will increase by 32.2% between 2003 and…  
    • Breast cancer incidence rates in women decreased 3.5% per year from 2001-2004, the first decrease observed in 20 years.  
    • Cancer death rates for all races/ethnicities and both sexes combined decreased by 2.1% per year from 2002-2004, nearly twice the annual decrease of 1.1% per year from 1993-2002.  
    • Cervical cancer screening reduces incidence by over 80%.  
    • A mammogram can detect breast cancer 1-3 years before a woman can feel a lump. Mammography screening for women 50 and older can reduce breast cancer mortality by 30%.  
    • Low dose CT screening for lung cancer costs less than $200 per person, and surgery for stage I lung cancer is less than 1/2 the cost of late-stage treatment.  
    • Image-guided breast biopsy takes about 1/5 the of a surgical biopsy, reduces complications and allows women to commence daily activities in 1/2 the time that it takes after open surgery.…  
    • Because of advances in treatment, the 5-year survival rate for people with actue lymphocytic leukemia has increased from 38% in 1974-1976 to 65% in 1995-2001.  
    • Medicines in Development for Cancer  
    • According to the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, one of the most promising medicines in development is for glioblastoma. The medicine singles out and latches onto the receptors on…  
    • According to the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, researchers are currently working on 646 medicines for cancer. All are either in clinical trials or under FDA review. …  
    • According to the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, a radiopharmaceutical currently in development is a synthetic version of a substance derived from scorpions–chlorotoxin. This could be a powerful…  
    • According to the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, a number of vaccines are being studied that would cause the body’s own immune system to fight cancer after it has…  
    • According to the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, a medicine in development that is a monoclonal antibody, targets the epidermal growth factor receptor. Because cancer cells can become…  
    • According to the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, a medicine in development targets late-stage metastatic melanoma. The medicine contains a gene encoding antigen that may be able to…  
    • According to the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, a medicine to fight breast cancer is currently in the pipeline. It targets the Bcl-2 protein, which appears to contribute…  
    • According to the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, a medicine in development targets CA125, a surface protein, or antigen, that is released in excess quantities by some ovarian cancers.…  
    • According to the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, a medicine currently in development may delay the worsening of liver cancer. The medicine is an oral signal transduction inhibitor…  
    • According to the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, a cancer medicine in the pipeline would inhibit production of a protein that may interfere with the effectiveness of chemotherapy.  
    • According to the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, a cancer medicine in development is designed to induce a powerful immune response to melanoma.  
    • A modest decrease of 1% in cancer mortality has been estimated to be worth $500 billion in social value.  
    • Based on cost-effectiveness consideration, the preferred screening method for colon cancer is a colonoscopy every 10 years after the age of 50.  
    • There are 3 million more cancer survivors today than there were a decade ago.  
    • For women age 40 or older, timely mammograms could reduce breast cancer mortality by about 16%–compared to those who are not screened.  
    • An experimental drug may help those women whose breast cancer worsens despite use of other therapies. The medicine was shown in studies to nearly double the time breast cancer…  
    • An experimental drug has been found to extend the lives of kidney patients by about 3.5 months–from 7 to just under 11. It has also been shown to delay…  
    • Since the war on cancer was declared in 1971, our arsenal has tripled. New drugs accounted for around 50-60% of the increase in six-year cancer survival rates since 1975.…  
    • Studies have shown that annual mammograms reduce breast cancer related mortality in women by 20-40%.  
    • Use of the Pap smear test is credited with cutting the age-adjusted cervical cancer incidence in half between 1975 and 2001, reducing it from 14.8 to 7.9 cases per 100,000…  
    • The 5-year survival rate for localized breast cancer, is 98%–an 18% increase since the 1950s.  
    • If the 1 million surgical breast biopsies performed annually were instead performed using image-guided needle core biopsy, the total savings could be $1.6 billion a year.  
    • Medical research that resulted in a 1/5 reduction in deaths from cancer would be worth $10 trillion to Americans-double the national debt.  
    • Surgical biopsy for lumps in the breast was found by one study to cost 2 1/2 to 3 times more than image-guided core-needle biopsy ($698 versus $243).  
    • A 2002 study found that image-guided percutaneous needle biopsies are between 3 and 7 times more cost-effective than open surgical biopsies, require a shorter procedure time, result in fewer infections,…  
    • Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) precisely maps and targets tumors with better tumor control and fewer side effects than other forms of radiation. In one study, IMRT increased the success…  
    • Cancer mortality declined more than 2% in 2003, a continuation of the decline that began in 1990.  
    • “Knowing that his disease had a high cure rate, Ben Dacus felt a sense of security at a time of great uncertainty. In 1988 he was diagnosed with Hodgkin’s disease. Strangely…  
    • Treating cancer patients with oral medicine versus intravenous chemotherapy results in a 2/3 reduction in hospital time and a greater than 50% reduction in costly medication side effects.  
    • Cancer Survival Rate Increasing  
    • Medicines Prevent Cancer Recurrence: New breast cancer drug greatly reduces recurrence and death (5 to 10 years after diagnosis in postmenopausal women)  
    • New Drug Increases Brain Cancer Survival Rate: Temozolomide is the first new drug in over 30 years to treat glioblastoma, a severe form of brain cancer  
    • In the U.S., new cancer drugs have increased life expectancy at birth by 10.7%.  
    • “If you had been diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in 1999, chances were that you would not be alive today. Just 3 out of 10 patients survived for…  
    • Five-year Relative Survival (%) during Three Time Periods by Cancer Site  
    • According to NIH Director Elias Zerhouni, investments of $8.60 per person per year over 30 years has resulted in cancer deaths falling for the first time in “recorded history.”  
    • The 5-year survival rate for prostate cancer has increased from 67% to nearly 100% over the past 20 years.  
    • The 1-year survival rate for lung cancer has increased from 37% in 1975 to 42% in 1999-2001, largely because of improvements to surgical techniques and with combined therapies.  
    • When detected early, the 5-year survival rate for colorectal cancer is 90%; however, only 39% of colorectal cancers are diagnosed early, mainly because of low rates of screening.  
    • Incidence rates for colorectal cancer have been decreasing since 1985, from 66 to 52 per 100,000 in 2002.  
    • Death rates from breast cancer declined by an average of 2.3% per year between 1990 and 2002 because of earlier detection through screening, better awareness, and improved treatments.  
    • The 5-year survival rate for all cancers diagnosed between 1995 and 2001 is up from 50% in 1974-1976 to 65%.  
    • Widespread use of telomerase inhibitors could result in a 50% cure rate and a 25% prolongation of life for 50% of eligible patients with solid tumors.  
    • Widespread use of selective estrogen receptor modulators could result in an approximately 30% decrease in breast cancer.  
    • Widespread use of cancer vaccines could result in a cure of melanoma/renal cell carcinomas and a 25% boost in survival for all other cancers.  
    • A modest 1% reduction in cancer mortality would be worth close to $500 billion. A cure for cancer (if one is feasible) would be worth around $50 trillion.  
    • A drug that can reduce the risk of breast cancer in high-risk women costs approximately $1,050 per year. The average cost per year for surgery or other invasive methods of…  
    • Virtual colonoscopy is more efficient at detecting cancerous polyps than standard colonoscopy without imaging, and costs $500-$1,500 less.  
    • Use of tamoxifen, a drug used to treat breast cancer, has resulted in a direct cost savings of $41,372 per year of life gained in women 35- to 49-years-old, $68,349…  
    • Every additional dollar spent on newer, less toxic hormonal therapy for breast cancer patients has produced health gains valued at between $27.03 and $36.81.  
    • Every additional dollar spent on overall breast cancer treatment has produced health gains valued at $4.80.  
    • A drug for testicular cancer that cost an estimated $56 million to develop led to a sharp increase in survival rate and an annual return of $166 million in treatment…